Including Original "Paul H. Letters" Copyright © 1996-2017 Paul V. Heinrich - All rights reserved.



Thursday, 26 December 2013

New Paper About Enigmatic Quaco Cobbles, Upper Triassic, Canadian Maritimes

New Paper About Enigmatic Quaco Cobbles, Upper Triassic, Canadian Maritimes

New paper has been published about the enigmatic
and controversial pitted and fractured cobbles found
in the Upper Triassic (Carnian) Quaco Formation of
coastal New Brunswick, Canada. It is:

Tanner, L. H., 2013, The enigmatic Quaco cobbles, Upper
Triassic, Canadian Maritimes: Deformation by tectonics or
seismic shock? in L. H. Tanner, J. A. Spielmann, and S. G.
Lucas, eds., pp. 577–581, The Triassic System: New
Developments in Stratigraphy and Paleontology. New
Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin
no. 61, 612 pp.

Link to this paper is at http://paleo.cortland.edu/globaltriassic2/

PDF file of this paper is at
http://paleo.cortland.edu/globaltriassic2/Bulletin%2061%20Final/46-Tanner%20(Quaco).pdf

Also, there is:

Chapman, M. G., M. A. Evans, and J. F. McHone, 2004,
Triassic cratered cobbles: Shock effects or tectonic
pressure: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference,
Abstracts of Papers Presented, vol. 35, abstract no. 1424.

PDF file of this extended abstract is at
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2004/pdf/1424.pdf

Merry Christmas

Paul H.

Wednesday, 25 December 2013

Data Are Lost to Science at 'Astonishing Rate '

Data Are Lost to Science at 'Astonishing Rate '

>From personal experience, I do not need a
scientific study to know that it is a real and
utterly frustrating problem in geology and
paleontology.

Data are lost to science at 'astonishing
rate.' EurekAlert, December 19, 2013
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-12/cp-dal121213.php

Where Have All the Data Gone? (Twenty years
after publication in 1991, 80 percent of the
data behind scientific papers was no longer
available. Karen Hopkin reports)
Scientific American, December 19, 2013
http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=where-have-all-the-data-gone-13-12-19

The paper is:

Vines, T. H., A. Y. K. Albert, and others,
2014, The Availability of Research Data
Declines Rapidly with Article Age. Current
Biology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.11.014
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/retrieve/pii/S0960982213014000
http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822%2813%2901400-0

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 21 December 2013

Kimberlites Discovered in Antarctica

Kimberlites Discovered in Antarctica

First 'bona fide' diamond-bearing rock discovery
made in Antarctica, Wired.co.uk, December 18, 2013
http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-12/18/antarctic-diamonds

Antarctica May Have a New Type of Ice: Diamonds
Scientific America (Reuters) December 17, 2103
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=antarctica-may-have-a-new-type-of-diamond

Antarctica's Icy Mountains May Be Harboring
Diamonds, University Herald, December 17, 2013
http://www.universityherald.com/articles/6270/20131217/antarcticas-ice-may-be-harboring-diamonds.htm

The paperis:

Yaxley, G. M., V. S. Kamenetsky, G. T. Nichols,
R. Maas, E. Belousova, A. Rosenthal, and M.
Norman, 2013, The discovery of kimberlites in
Antarctica extends the vast Gondwanan Cretaceous
province. Nature Communications. vol. 4, article
no. 2921, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3921

Yours,

Paul H.

--

Tuesday, 17 December 2013

5, 300 Year-Old, Subfossil Domestic Cats, China

5, 300 Year-Old, Subfossil Domestic Cats, China

How Humans Created Cats (Following the invention
of agriculture, one thing led to another, and ta da: the
world's most popular pet by R. J. Rosen, The Atlantic.
http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/12/how-humans-created-cats/282391/

Cats May Have Been On Road To Domestication
In Chinese Farming Villages 5,300 Years Ago
By Roxanne Palmer, International Business Times,
December 16 2013
http://www.ibtimes.com/cats-may-have-been-road-domestication-chinese-farming-villages-5300-years-ago-1510952

Cat domestication may date back more than 5,000
years, USA Today, December 16, 2013
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/12/16/cat-domestication-china/4034759/

Hu, Y., S. Hu , W. Wang, X. Wu, F. B. Marshall,
X. Chena, L. Hou, and C. Wang, 2013, Earliest
evidence for commensal processes of cat
domestication. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States.
Published online before print December 16, 2013,
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1311439110 PNAS December
16, 2013.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/12/12/1311439110

Merry Christmas,

Paul H.

Monday, 16 December 2013

Volcanic Activity and Grand Canyon Filled With Fog

Volcanic Activity and Grand Canyon Filled With Fog

I found some spectacular pictures of the Grand
Canyon filled with fog on the Atlantic's In Focus
site (http://m.theatlantic.com/infocus)

The pictures are at:
http://m.theatlantic.com/infocus/2013/12/a-sea-of-clouds-fills-the-grand-canyon/100640/

Also, there is a gallery of very nice photos
of volcanic activity at:
http://m.theatlantic.com/infocus/2013/12/2013-the-year-in-volcanic-activity/100645/

Happy Holidays,
Paul
--

Sunday, 15 December 2013

Limitations Of Fossil Hunting In A Space Suit

Limitations Of Fossil Hunting In A Space Suit

The Tough Task of Finding Fossils While
Wearing a Spacesuit by Adam Hadhazy,
Astrobiology Magazine, December 12, 2013
http://www.astrobio.net/exclusive/5861/the-tough-task-of-finding-fossils-while-wearing-a-spacesuit

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 13 December 2013

New Permian Extinction Study Points At Volcanic Eruptions As Primary Cause

New Permian Extinction Study Points At Volcanic Eruptions As Primary Cause

Earth's Greatest Killer Finally Caught by Becky Oskin
LiveScience, December 12, 2013
http://www.livescience.com/41909-new-clues-permian-mass-extinction.html

Volcanic eruptions bubbled beneath Earth’s largest
extinction by Jyoti Madhusoodanan, GoeSpace,
AGU Blogsphere, Decemebr 12, 2013
http://blogs.agu.org/geospace/2013/12/12/volcanic-eruptions-bubbled-beneath-earths-largest-extinction/

MIT Siberian Flood Basalt Expedition
http://siberia.mit.edu/

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 10 December 2013

Sunday, 8 December 2013

Geologic time vs. absolute time

Geologic time vs. absolute time

Geologic time vs. absolute time
By Sarah Werning, PLOS Blogs,
Posted: November 20, 2013
http://blogs.plos.org/paleo/2013/11/20/geologic-time-vs-absolute-time/

There is a related, recent paper about radiocarbon dating.

New Research Will Allow More Reliable Dating
of Major Past Events, Science Daily, Dec. 3, 2013
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131203110322.htm

Paula J Reimer, Edouard Bard, and others, 2013,
IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration
Curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon. vol. 55,
no. 4, pp. DOI: 10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947
https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/radiocarbon/article/view/16947

It and related papers can be found at:
https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/radiocarbon/issue/view/1024

Yours,

Paul H.

The Granite Wars

The Granite Wars

Granite Wars – Episode I: Fire & Water
By David Bressan | September 28, 2013 | Comments1
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/history-of-geology/2013/09/28/granite-wars-episode-i-fire-water/

Granite Wars – Episode II: A New Phase (-Diagram)
By David Bressan | October 13, 2013 |
Scientific American
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/history-of-geology/2013/10/13/granite-wars-episode-ii-a-new-phase-diagram/

yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 6 December 2013

An Evaluation of the Proposed Spratly Islands Impact Structure

An Evaluation of the Proposed Spratly Islands Impact Structure

In November 3, 2013, on the “Cosmic Tusk,” Hermann G W Burchard proposed that the region underlying the Spratly Islands is the center of a multi-ring circular to oval impact structure,
informally called “Crater Burchard,” that has a diameter of about 275 km (175 miles). Given that crater are not normally named after people, but after geographic locations, this proposed
impact structure will be referred to as the “Spratly Islands Impact Structure” for purposes of discussion after the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. The center of this proposed
275 km (175 miles) in diameter impact structure is an atoll called Union Reefs, or Union Bank at Latitude 9.788666° and Longitude 114.351768°. Burchard speculates that the Union Reefs atoll might lie on top of the top of the central uplift of
such an impact crater. he further speculates that this proposed crater might be the long searched for Australasian tektite impact crater Burchard (2013). The existence of this impact structure
is based entirely upon hypothetical circular features found by the visual examination of bathymetry as portrayed by Google Earth.

The Spratly Islands is part of a larger area called the "Dangerous Ground." The Dangerous Ground is a part of southeast South China Sea that is characterized numerous low islands, reefs,
submerged banks, shoals, and atolls that often rise abruptly from the depths of the South China Sea. Because this area is poorly and inconsistently charted, it was, and in part still is, a dangerous
place for navigation. Tropical depression, typhoons, unpredictable squalls, modern day pirates, and armed naval vessels involved in various international jurisdictional disputes are additional hazards
found within this region (Anonymous 2011).

Burchard (2013) is right about there being significant information (“news”) about the geology of the Spratly Islands and adjacent Dangerous Ground having been collected because of the oil and
gas potential of the area. Contrary to what he assumed, specifics about the geology of region were quite easy to locate and were collected in only a few hours of effort. In addition to geological
research associated with oil and gas studies, detailed geological data for this part of the South China Sea was gathered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 184 (Shipboard Scientific
Party 2000a). Thus, the published data available for the Spratly Islands and adjacent Dangerous Ground includes seismic lines that cut across the proposed impact structure and an ODP drillhole,
ODP Site 1143 of Leg 184, that lies just within the alleged rim of the proposed Spratly Islands Impact Structure. The drillhole at ODP Site 1143 was continuously cored to from the sea floor
at a depth of 2772 m below sea level to a depth of 512.4 m (1,680 feet) below the sea bottom (Shipboard Scientific Party, 2000b).

Because of their potential oil and gas potential and the multiple and contentious international claims and jurisdictional disputes concerning the Spratly Islands and adjacent Dangerous Ground
region, they have been the subject of intensive and repetitive geological studies from a wide variety of governmental and nongovernmental agencies and private corporations of various
nationalities. Although much of the data, including seismic lines and drillhole data, remain proprietary, scientifically significant and revealing data, including regional multi-channel seismic
data, and their interpretations, have been published in sufficient number to provide a clear picture of their geology as discussed in Blanche and Blanche (1997), Hutchison (2004, 2010),
Hutchison and Vijayan (2010), Hinz and Schlueter (1985), Metcalfe (2010), Wei-Weil and Jia-Biao (2011), Zhen etal (2011) and various other publications.

The above research found that at the surface the Spratly Islands consist of reefs, banks, and shoals that are composed of  biogenic carbonate that have accumulated on the higher crests of major sea-floor seafloor ridges. These ridges consist of a series of uplifted fault-blocks, called horsts, which are part of a series of parallel and en echelon, half-grabens and rotated
fault-blocks. The axes of the ridge crests (horsts) and their associated grabens form well-defined linear trends that lie parallel to magnetic anomalies of the contiguous oceanic crust of the adjacent South China Sea. These fault-blocks consist of  Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous strata that include calcalkalic extrusive rocks, intermediate to acid intrusive rocks, sandstones, siltstones, dark-green claystones, and metamorphic rocks that include biotite-muscovite-feldspar-quartz migmatites or
gamet-micaschists (Blanche and Blanche 1997, Hutchison 2004, 2010, Hutchison and Vijayan 2010, Hinz and Schlueter 1985, Wei-Weil and Jia-Biao 2011).

These horsts and grabens are the result of two distinct periods of tectonic stretching of continental crust along underlying deeply-rooted detachment faults. The early period of tectonism
occurred during the Late Cretaceous and Early Oligocene and resulted in the formation of horsts, half-grabens, and rotated fault-blocks. This tectonism was associated with the rifting and stretching of continental crust that corresponded with the initial sea-floor spreading within the South China Sea. Further stretching and block faulting of continental crust occurred within the Spratly Islands and adjacent Dangerous Ground area during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene and eventually halted
afterwards. After tectonic activity had ceased, the crest of the horsts that lay in shallow water were colonized and biogenic carbonates accumulated on them to form reefs, shoals and
cays known as the Spratly Islands (Wei-Weil and Jia-Biao 2011, Zhen et al. 2011)

The history of faulting and related tectonism within the Spratly Islands and adjacent Dangerous Ground region can be confidently reconstructed on the basis of regional unconformities that can be
clearly seen and identified in regional and local seismic sections. Because they have been dated using biostratigraphy in drillholes that intersect them, they form timelines that can be traced using
seismic across the entire Dangerous Ground region, including the Spratly Islands. The most important of these unconformities is known as either the “Mid-Miocene,” "Breakup," or “T60"
unconformity (Hutchison 2004, Hutchison and Vijayan 2010, Wei-Wei and Jia-Biao 2011, Zhen et al. 2011). This unconformity is an angular unconformity that separates syn-rift strata, which
accumulated during the faulting that formed these regional half-grabens and rotated blocks, from post-rift strata, which accumulated after the regional tectonism had ceased during the Early Miocene. The T60 unconformity clearly demonstrates that faulting within Spratly Islands and Dangerous Ground had ended by Early Miocene (Hutchison and Vijayan 2010, Wei-Wei
and Jia-Biao 2011, Zhen et al. 2011). Thus, there is complete absence of either any significant faulting or any other tectonism that can be associated with a 0.78 Ma extraterrestrial impact. The
relatively undisturbed and intact nature of post- Early Miocene sediments within the Spratly Islands and Dangerous Ground region completely refutes any hypothesis about they being the site of a
relatively large 0.78 Ma extraterrestrial impact being associated with the Spratly Islands and Dangerous Ground region.

Equally revealing are the cores recovered from drilling at ODP Site 1143. The examination of these cores by Shipboard Scientific Party (2000b) found only one recognizable lithologic unit, which
is subdivided into two subunits, Subunits, IA and IB, within the 512 m-long (1,780 foot-long) core. The upper 160 m (525 feet) of the sedimentary sequence, Subunit 1A, consists of typically massive, olive-gray, light grayish green, hemipelagic, calcareous clay with abundant nannofossils and foraminifera. Distinct green clay layers are present. Foraminifer ooze turbidites were also occur
within this subunit. The turbidites are normally graded. They often exhibit a scoured basal contact. The part of the sedimentary sequence that is below 160 m (525 feet), Subunit 1B, consists
of are clayey nannofossil mixed sediment, nannofossil clay, and nannofossil ooze with clay. This subunit has a higher carbonate content; more turbidites; and fewer green clay layers then
Subunit 1A. In addition, it contains infrequent dark gray volcanic ash layers and volcanic breccias. Subunit 1B also exhibits trace fossils, such as Zoophycos and Chondrites, and sedimentary
structures associated with slumps and turbidites (Shipboard Scientific Party 2000b).

These sediments can be readily dated from the abundant microfossils, including nannofossils and foraminifera. These fossils demonstrate that the Pleistocene/ Pliocene boundary is
located between 93.5 and 94.3 m (307 and 309 feet) below the sea bottom and the Pliocene/Miocene boundary is located between 213.0 and 200.6 m (699 and 658 feet) below the sea bottom. In addition, a clear paleomagentic declination change of nearly 180° at 43.2 m (142 feet) below sea bottom and in the middle of Core 184-1143C-5H was interpreted to represent the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal at about 0.78 Ma. The sedimentary sequence cored at ODP Site 1143 clearly shows that hemipelagic
sedimentation of fine-grained terrigenous material and calcareous nannofossils occurred essentially uninterrupted from the late Miocene to present at this site (Shipboard Scientific Party
2000b).

Being located just within the rim of the proposed Spratly Islands Impact Structure, this core, as does published seismic sections,  demonstrates the lack of any significant Pleistocene-age
extraterrestrial impact structure being associated with the Spratly Islands. The ODP Site1143 cores, seismic data, and other published research effectively refute the existence of the
proposed Spratly Islands Impact Structure and relegates it to a long of imaginary extraterrestrial impact structures that have  been proposed solely on the basis of remote sensing data. It
shows how dubious a methodology using Google Earth alone to identify extraterrestrial impact craters.

Note: For other examples of the dubious use of Google Earth to identify extraterrestrial impact structures, go read

1. The Manuel Benavides Craterwrong and Cratermania
http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg92117.html

2. Preliminary Evaluation of a Proposed “Younger Dryas
Impact” Crater
https://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg102013.html

References,

Anonymous, 2011, Sailing Directions (Enroute): South China
Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, Publication 161, 13th edition,
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Bethesda, Maryland.

Blanche, J. B. and J. D. Blanche, 1997, An Overview of the
Hydrocarbon Potential of the Spratly Islands Archipelago
and its Implications for Regional Development. in A. J.
Fraser, S. J. Matthews, and R. W. Murphy, eds., pp. 293-310,
Petroleum Geology of South East Asia. Special Publication
no. 126, The Geological Society, Bath, England 436 pp.

Burchard, H. G. W., 2013, Crater Burchard? The Cosmic
Tusk. November 3, 2013 http://cosmictusk.com/crater-burchard/

Hinz K., and H. U. Schlueter, 1985, Geology of the Dangerous
Grounds, South China Sea, and the continental margin off
southwest Palawan: results of SONNE Cruises SO-23 and
SO-27. Energy. vol. 10, no. 3-4, pp. 297-315.

Hutchison, C. S., 2004, Marginal basin evolution; the southern
South China Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology. vol. 21,
no. 9, pp. 1129–1148

Hutchison, C. S., 2010, The North-West Borneo Trough Marine
Geology. vol. 271, pp. 32–43

Hutchison, C. S., and V. R. Vijayan, 2010, What are the
Spratly Islands? Journal of Asian Earth Science. vol. 39,
no. 5, pp. 371–385.

Metcalfe, I., 2011, Tectonic framework and Phanerozoic
evolution of Sundaland. Gondwana Research. vol. 19, pp. 3–21

Wei-Wei1, D., and L, Jia-Biao, 2011, Seismic Stratigraphy,
Tectonic Structure and Extension Factors Across the Dangerous
Grounds: Evidence from Two Regional Multi-Channel Seismic
Profiles. Chinese Journal of Geophysics. vol. 54, no. 6,
pp. 921–941.

Shipboard Scientific Party, 2000a, Volume 184 Initial Reports.
(South China Sea) Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program,
Initial Reports. vol. 184, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M
University, College Station, Texas.

Shipboard Scientific Party, 2000b, 4. Site 11431. Proceedings
of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports. vol. 184, Ocean
Drilling Program, Texas A&M, University, College Station,
Texas.

Zhen, S., Z. Zhong-Xian, L. Jia-Biao, Z. Di, and W. Zhang-
Wen, 2013, Tectonic Analysis of the Breakup and Collision
Unconformities in the Nansha Block. Chinese Journal of
Geophysics. vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1069-1083.

Yours,

Paul H.

Ethics (Includuing Copyrights) Of Digital Fossils

Ethics (Including Copyrights) Of Digital Fossils

Developing an Ethic for Digital Fossils by Andrew Farke,
PLOS Blogs, December 5, 2013,
http://blogs.plos.org/paleo/2013/12/05/developing-an-ethic-for-digital-fossils/

Yours,

Paul H.

New Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves

New Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves

New Research Will Allow More Reliable Dating
of Major Past Events, Science Daily, Dec. 3, 2013
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131203110322.htm

Paula J Reimer, Edouard Bard, and others, 2013, IntCal13
and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves
0–50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon. vol. 55, no. 4,
pp. DOI: 10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947
https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/radiocarbon/article/view/16947

It and related papers can be found at:
https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/radiocarbon/issue/view/1024

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 4 December 2013

Interesting Paper About Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis

Interesting Paper About Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis

There is a new and interesting paper about the Younger
Dryas Impact Hypothesis. It is:

van Hoesel, A., W. Z. Hoek, G. M. Pennock, and M. R. Drury,
2014, The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis: a critical review.
Quaternary Science Reviews. vol. 83, pp. 95–114.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379113004332
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02773791/83/supp/C

This paperconcludes that convincing evidence for this hypothesis
remains debatable and that some of the evidence used to support
the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis either cannot fully be
explained or is contradictory. This paper also concludes that
there is an apparent age discrepancy of up to two centuries
between different sites associated with the proposed impact
event and offers alternative interpretations of it.

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 30 November 2013

Ancient Minerals: Which Gave Rise to Life?

Ancient Minerals: Which Gave Rise to Life? 

Ancient Minerals: Which Gave Rise to Life?
Science Dailey, Nov. 25, 2013
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131125164814.htm

Hazen, R. M., 2013, Paleomineralogy of the
Hadean Eon: A preliminary species list. American
Journal of Science, 313 (9): 807 DOI: 10.2475/09.2013.01
http://www.ajsonline.org/content/313/9/807

Also there is:

Fool's Gold Gives Scientists Priceless Insight
Into Earth's Evolution, Science Daily, July 23, 2011
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110722132823.htm

Guilbaud, R., I. B. Butler, and R. M. Ellam, 2013,
Abiotic Pyrite Formation Produces a Large Fe
Isotope Fractionation. Science. vol. 332, no. 6037
pp. 1548-1551 DOI: 10.1126/science.1202924
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6037/1548

And finally there is:

Darling, J. R., D. E. Moser L. M. Heaman, W. J. Davis,
J. O'Neil and R. Carlson, 2013, Eoarchean to Neoarchean
evolution of the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal belt: New
insights from U-Pb zircon geochronology. vol. 313,
no. 9, pp. 844-876 doi: 10.2475/09.2013.02 AJS
http://www.ajsonline.org/content/313/9/844.abstract

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 29 November 2013

Montreal-area Fireball Had Bad Timing

Montreal-area Fireball Had Bad Timing

Meteorite expert says Montreal-area fireball had bad timing
by Tom Spears, Ottawa Citizen November 28, 2013
http://www.ottawacitizen.com/technology/Meteorites/9220507/story.html

Happy Thanksgiving,

Paul H.

Tule Springs Fossil Beds, Nevada, Could Become National Park

Tule Springs Fossil Beds, Nevada, Could Become National Park

Tule Springs Fossil Beds Could Become National Park
By Brian Brennan and Kash Cashell, Channel 8 News,
November 21, 2013,
http://www.8newsnow.com/story/24039144/tule-springs

Tule Springs protection bill could see Senate vote by
2014 by James DeHaven, Las Vegas Review-Journal,
November 22, 2013, http://www.reviewjournal.com/view/centennial/tule-springs-protection-bill-could-see-senate-vote-2014

Tour offers Air Force close-up look at fossil-rich
flyover country by Henry Brean, Las Vegas
Review-Journal November 19, 2013
http://www.reviewjournal.com/news/tour-offers-air-force-close-look-fossil-rich-flyover-country

S. 974: Las Vegas Valley Public Land and Tule Springs
Fossil Beds National Monument Act of 2013
https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/113/s974/text

Protectors of Tule Springs (Fossil Beds)
http://tulespringslv.com/

Paul H.

Acid rain, Siberian Traps, and Permian Extinction

Acid rain, Siberian Traps, and Permian Extinction

Acid raid, ozone depletion contributed to ancient extinction
Carnegie Institution of Washington News, November 20, 2013
http://carnegiescience.edu/news/acid_raid_ozone_depletion_contributed_ancient_extinction

Base of the Siberian Traps volcanic sequence
https://carnegiescience.edu/kotuy_river and https://carnegiescience.edu/kotuy_river_2

A possible cause of the end-Permian mass extinction: Lemon
juice? MIT researchers find that rain as acidic as lemon juice
may have contributed to massive die-offs on land 252 million
years ago. Massachusetts Institute of Technology News
Nov. 25, 2013, http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2013/permian-acid-rain-extinction-112513.html

The paper is:

Black, B. A., J.-F. Lamarque, C. A. Shields, L. T. Elkins-
Tanton and J. T. Kiehl, 2013, Acid rain and ozone depletion
from pulsed Siberian Traps magmatism. Geology. (advance
online publication) doi: 10.1130/G34875.1http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2013/11/21/G34875.1.abstract

A related article:

The Permian Extinction—When Life Nearly Came to an
End by Hillel J. Hoffman, National Geographic Magazine
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/permian-extinction/

Yours,

Paul H.

Trove of Data from Russian 'Dash-cam' Meteorite

Trove of Data from Russian 'Dash-cam' Meteorite

Trove of data from Russian 'dash-cam' meteorite by Simon
Redfern, The Conversation, Phys.Org, November 27, 2013
http://phys.org/news/2013-11-trove-russian-dash-cam-meteorite.html
http://theconversation.com/secrets-revealed-of-dash-cam-meteorite-that-rocked-russia-19923

Related articles:

First study results of Russian Chelyabinsk meteor published
Phys.Org, November 6, 2013
http://phys.org/news/2013-11-results-russian-chelyabinsk-meteor-published.html

Chelyabinsk meteor explosion a 'wake-up call', scientists
warn by Shireen Chan, The Conversation, November 7, 2013
http://phys.org/news/2013-11-chelyabinsk-meteor-explosion-wake-up-scientistswarn.html
http://theconversation.com/chelyabinsk-meteor-explosion-a-wake-up-call-scientists-warn-19874

How Satellites Watched Russian Meteor Explosion from
Space by Charles Q. Choi, SPACE.com, October 21, 2013
http://www.space.com/23273-russia-meteor-chelyabinsk-satellite-photos.html

Happy Thanksgiving,

Paul H.

Monday, 25 November 2013

300 ft Wall in Bolivia has over 5000 Dinosaur Footprints

300 ft Wall in Bolivia has over 5000 Dinosaur Footprints

300 ft Wall in Bolivia has over 5000 Dinosaur
Footprints. Amazing Earth, October 17, 2013
http://www.myamazingearth.com/2013/10/300-ft-wall-in-bolivia-has-over-5000-dinosaur-footprints/
http://twistedsifter.com/2013/10/cal-orko-wall-in-bolivia-covered-in-dinosaur-tracks/
http://www.kuriositas.com/2013/09/the-incredible-dinosaur-wall-of-bolivia.html

Dinosaur tracking in Bolivia: Our writer is awed by more
than 450 dinosaur footprints in the rock faces of Cal Orko,
central Bolivia by Ian Belcher, The Guardian, July 15, 2011
http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2011/jul/15/dinosaur-tracking-bolivia-cal-orko

El Parque Cretácico (Dinosaur Park) in Sucre, Bolivia
http://www.southamericaliving.com/el-parque-cretacico-dinasaur-park-in-sucre-bolivia/

Lockley, M., A. S. Schuip, C. A. Meyer, G. Leonardi and
D. K. Mamani, 2002, Titanosaurid trackways from the
Upper Cretaceous of Bolivia: evidence for large manus,
wide-gauge locomotion and gregarious behavior.
Cretaceous Research. vol. 23, pp. 383-400.
http://www.nmb.bs.ch/lockley_et_al._2002.pdf

Meyer, C.A., D. Hippler, and M. G. Lockley, 2001, The
Late Cretaceous vertebrate ichnofacies of Bolivia - facts
and implications. In: VII International Symposium on
Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. Publicacion Especial no. 7,
pp. 133-138, Asociacion Paleontologica Argentina
http://www.nmb.bs.ch/xs4all/forschung/forschung-geowissenschaften/meyer_et_al._2001.pdf

Yours,
Paul H.

Friday, 22 November 2013

Asteroids Can Get Shaken And Stirred By Mars'

Asteroids Can Get Shaken And Stirred By Mars'

Mars' Effect on Asteroids More Powerful than
Previously Believed, Nature world News
http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/4981/20131119/mars-effect-on-asteroids-more-powerful-than-previously-believed.htm

http://www.natureworldnews.com/home/news/services/print.php?article_id=4981

Asteroids Can Get Shaken And Stirred By Mars'
Gravity, Universe Today, November 20, 2013
http://www.universetoday.com/106591/asteroids-can-get-shaken-and-stirred-by-mars-gravity/

DeMeo, F. E., R. P. Binzel, and M. Lockhart, 2014,
Mars encounters cause fresh surfaces on some
near-Earth asteroids. Icarus. vol. 227, pp. 112–122.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103513003941
Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.4839

Yours,

Paul H.

More About Moon Dust

More About Moon Dust

Rediscovered Apollo data gives first measure of how
fast Moon dust piles up, American Geophysical Union
http://news.agu.org/press-release/rediscovered-apollo-data-gives-first-measure-of-how-fast-moon-dust-piles-up/

Hollick, m., and B. J. O'Brien, 2013, Lunar Weather
Measurements at three Apollo Sites 1969-1976. Space
Weather. Article first published online: 19 NOV 2013
DOI: 10.1002/2013SW000978
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013SW000978/full

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 21 November 2013

Chelyabinsk Meteorite Impact Caught on Security Cam

Chelyabinsk Meteorite Impact Caught on Security Cam

Watch Russian meteorite's impact via security cam
(Moments after exploding with the energy of an atomic
bomb in the skies over the city of Chelyabinsk, the space
rock quietly let itself into a lake outside of town, not far
from the watchful eye of a security camera.)
c/net News, November 15, 2013
http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-57612559-1/watch-russian-meteorites-impact-via-security-cam/

Newly Released Security Cam Video Shows Chelyabinsk
Meteorite Impact in Lake Chebarkul, The Universe Today
http://www.universetoday.com/106226/newly-released-security-cam-video-shows-chelyabinsk-meteorite-impact-in-lake-chebarkul/

Popova, O. P., and many others, 2013, Chelyabinsk Airburst,
Damage Assessment, Meteorite Recovery, and Characterization.
Science, Published Online Nov. 7 2013, DOI: 10.1126/science.1242642
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2013/11/06/science.1242642

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 19 November 2013

Evidence of Granite on Mars Found

Evidence of Granite on Mars Found

Evidence of Granite on Mars Discovered in Ancient
Volcano, Science World Report, November 18, 2013
http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/10976/20131118/evidence-granite-mars-discovered-ancient-volcano.htm

Evidence found for granite on Mars, Georgia Institute
of Technology, Eurekalert. November 18, 2013
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-11/giot-eff111713.php

Wray, J. J., S. T. Hansen, J. Dufek, G. A. Swayze,
S. L. Murchie, F. P. Seelos, J. R. Skok, R. P. Irwin, III,
and M. S. Ghiorso, 2013, Prolonged magmatic activity
on Mars inferred from the detection of felsic rocks.
Nature Geoscience. doi:10.1038/ngeo1994
Published online 17 November 2013
http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo1994.html

Carter, J., and F. Poulet, 2013, Ancient plutonic
processes on Mars inferred from the detection of
possible anorthositic terrains. Nature Geoscience.
doi:10.1038/ngeo1995, Published online 17 November 2013
http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo1995.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 16 November 2013

Refuting "metaphysical" properties of rocks

Refuting "metaphysical" properties of rocks

In “refuting "metaphysical" properties of rocks” at:
http://lists.drizzle.com/pipermail/rockhounds_lists.drizzle.com/2013-November/002098.html
Kitty wrote:

“Can anyone direct me to a good source for refuting
"metaphysical" properties of rocks? I have a friend
who is very intelligent, but not especially well educated,
and he's all excited about something he heard about
"healing" gems. He's recovering from cancer surgery
and I'm afraid he may be thinking about using "treatment"
through crystals instead of further medical care. I don't
want to appear to laugh at him or "talk down" to him,
but I also don't want to just say, "we don't believe in
such stuff," and change the subject.”

I would suggest having him read:

1. Steve Jobs' Cancer Treatment Regrets by Alice
G. Walton, Forbes Magazine, October 24, 2011
http://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2011/10/24/steve-jobs-cancer-treatment-regrets/

and 2. Steve Jobs 'regretted trying to beat cancer
with alternative medicine for so long' by Jon Swaine,
The Telegraph, October 21, 2013
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/apple/8841347/Steve-Jobs-regretted-trying-to-beat-cancer-with-alternative-medicine-for-so-long.html

Some web pages specifically

Crystal Healing Considered Dangerous by Jeffrey Shallit
http://recursed.blogspot.ca/2006/05/crystal-healing-considered-dangerous.html

Debunking Crystal Healing by Jeffrey Shallit
http://recursed.blogspot.ca/2006/05/debunking-crystal-healing.html

Quackwatch at http://www.quackwatch.com/

Of course there is nothing the prevents a person from
doing both regular medical treatments and “crystal
therapy” at the same time. That way your friend has
the benefits of medical science and, if nothing else, the
psychological comfort of having either a few pretty rocks,
gemstones, or fossils, to look at, meditate on, and think
about. Just do not get scammed by paying obscene
prices for rocks that are completely lacking in any
medical benefit as touted on the Internet.

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 14 November 2013

Asteroid Impact Entombs Ancient Seawater Beneath Chesapeake Bay

Asteroid Impact Entombs Ancient Seawater Beneath Chesapeake Bay

Oldest Large Body of Ancient Seawater Identified under
Chesapeake Bay. United States Geological Survey press
release, November 13, 2013
http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3725

Ancient Seawater Entombed Beneath Chesapeake Bay
Crater. Nature World News, November 13, 2103
http://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/4894/20131113/ancient-seawater-entombed-beneath-chesapeake-bay-crater.htm

Oldest Body Seawater Discovered Under Chesapeake
Bay. Science World Report, November 14, 2013
http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/10896/20131114/oldest-body-of-ancient-seawater-discovered-under-chesapeake-bay.htm

Sanford, W. E., M. W. Doughten, T. B. Coplen, A. G.
Hunt, and T. D. Bullen, 2013, Evidence for high salinity
of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay
crater. Nature. vol. 503, pp. 252–256.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v503/n7475/full/nature12714.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 1 November 2013

Toxic Ocean Conditions During Cretaceous Extinction - Oceanic Anoxic Event

Toxic Ocean Conditions During Cretaceous Extinction - Oceanic Anoxic Event

Toxic Ocean Conditions During Major Extinction 93.9
Million Years Ago Quantified: Doesn't Take Much
Sulfide to Impact Ocean Life, Science Daily, Oct. 28, 2013
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131028163011.htm

Researchers Quantify Toxic Ocean Conditions During
Major Extinction 93.9 Million Years Ago, University
of California, Oct. 28, 2013, http://ucrtoday.ucr.edu/10927

Owens, J. A., B. C. Gill, H. C. Jenkyns, S. M. Bates,
S. Severmann, M. M. M. Kuypers, R. G. Woodfine, and
T. W. Lyons. 2013, Sulfur isotopes track the global
extent and dynamics of euxinia during Cretaceous
Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States. Published
online before print October 29, 2013, PNAS October 29,
2013, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1305304110
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/10/28/1305304110

Yours,

Paul H.

Did a Huge Impact Lead to the Cambrian Explosion?

Did a Huge Impact Lead to the Cambrian Explosion?

Did a Huge Impact Lead to the Cambrian Explosion?
Astrobiology Magazine, October 14, 2013
http://www.astrobio.net/exclusive/5742/did-a-huge-impact-lead-to-the-cambrian-explosion

Young, G. M, 2013, Evolution of Earth's climatic
system: Evidence from ice ages, isotopes, and impacts
GSA Today. vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 4-10.
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/10/abstract/i1052-5173-23-10-4.htm

Text at:
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/10/article/i1052-5173-23-10-4.htm
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/10/article/i1052-5173-23-10-4.htm#toclink7

PDF file at:
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/10/pdf/i1052-5173-23-10-4.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 27 October 2013

Remarkably Preserved Fossil Frog, France (Thaumastosaurus)

Remarkably Preserved Fossil Frog, France (Thaumastosaurus)

Fossil Frog Still Looks Gooey After Over 34 Million
Years by Brian Switek, Laelaps, September 27, 2013
http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/09/27/fossil-frog-still-looks-gooey-after-over-34-million-years/
http://www.pinterest.com/pin/341851427936414887/

The paper is:

Laloy, F., J-C. Rage, S. Evans, R. Boistel, N. Lenoir,
and others, 2013. A re-interpretation of the Eocene anuran
Thaumastosaurus based on microCT examination of a
‘mummified’ specimen. PLoS ONE 8, 9: e74874.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074874

Abstract at:
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0074874

PDF file at
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0074874&representation=PDF

What originally was described as an external cast of an
anuran ‘mummy’ from the Quercy Phosphorites
(southwestern France) contains a large part of the frog's
skeleton as shown by CT scans.

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 25 October 2013

Precambrian target rock mystery

Precambrian target rock mystery

Jack wrote in Precambrian target rock mystery at
http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg115243.html

"I am thinking an ET origin regarding these targets and
throwing out idea for comments."

and

"Phillis Hargrave et al lead author of the above paper with
the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has sent me
additional photos to share. The paper should be online."

One publication, Hargarve et al. (2011) is online at:
http://www.mbmg.mtech.edu/pdf-open-files/mbmg602_SilverCity.pdf

Yes, they are interesting and quite curious. Below is
specifically what Hargarve et al. (2011) stated about them.

"Ys Spokane Formation – Grayish red, dark greenish red, and
purplish red, microlaminated argillite and siltite; contains abundant
mud cracks, ripple marks, etc. The Spokane Formation in this
quadrangle contains many areas where “target” rocks, areas of
concentric bleaching around a central grain, can be found,
especially in the hills west of Little Prickly Pear Creek. These
bleached circles are sometimes single occurrences and are locally
also “constellations” of numerous small circles. The target rocks
are the result of radioactive decay. According to Bregman
(written comm, 2009 the central nodule is high in strontium,
rubidium or any one of a number of radioactive elements derived
from the Grenville Highlands way off to the "east (?)" of the
deposition area. The "target rocks" are usually found in the
Spokane which is normally maroon (though there are some
relatively thin light green beds throughout). The age of the rocks,
about 1.2 (?) billion years old. Enough time for the heat generated
by the radioactive decay to cook (bleach) the color out of the
Spokane. Because heat radiates out in a sphere from the nodules,
the circles are actually spheres (or ellipsoids) sliced by the shale
layers. There probably are the same element nodules in the other
Belt rocks (Greyson, Empire, etc.), but since their normal color,
or weathered color can be not much different than the bleached
out portions, they would be veritably invisible."

The publication is:

Hargrave, P., J. Lonn and M. Bregman, 2011, Geologic Map of
the Silver City 7.5' Quadrangle,West-Central Montana. Montana
Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report no. MBMG 602.
http://www.mbmg.mtech.edu/pdf-open-files/mbmg602_SilverCity.pdf
http://www.mbmg.mtech.edu/mbmgcat/public/ListCitation.asp?pub_id=31402&

Looking at the literature, the Spokane Formation (formerly
Grinnell Formation) has gone through significant metamorphism,
diagenetic alteration, and, in places, copper and other mineralization,
which will make understanding what created them quite complicated.

Jack asked:

"Another geologist suggested the reaction is a type of
geo-chromotography but by what?"

They remind me of and look a lot like reduction haloes, which are
commonly found in redbeds, paleosols, and other strata. Reduction
haloes have also been called "reduction spheroids," "reduction
spots," "fish eyes," "reduction mottling," "bleaching haloes,"
"(radioactive) concretions," and "(radioactive) nodules." There are
various processes by which they have been explained. Some of
them are discussed in:

Dyck, W., and R. H. McCorkell, 1983, A study of uranium-rich
reduction spheroids in sandstones from Pugwash Harbour, Nova
Scotia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. vol. 20, no. 11,
pp. 1738-1746.
http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/e83-163

Hofmann, B. A., 1991, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of
Reduction Spheroids in Red Beds. Mineralogy and Petrology.
vol. 44, pp. 107-124.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01167103

Hofmann, B., J. P. L. Dearlove, M. Ivanovich, D. A. Lever, D. C.
Green, P. Baertschi, and Tj. Peters, 1987, Evidence of Fossil and
Recent Diffusive Element Migration in Reduction Haloes from
Permian Red-Beds of Northern Switzerland. in B. Come and N. A.
Chapman. eds., pp, 217-238, Natural Analogues in Radioactive
Waste Disposal. Springer, New York, New York.
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-009-3465-8_21

Kemp, A. J., M. R. Palmer, and K. V. Ragnarsdottir, 1994, The
Uranium-Thorium and rare earth element geochemistry of reduced
nodules from Budleigh Salterton, Devon. Proceedings of the
Ussher Society. vol. 8, pp. 214-218.
http://www.ussher.org.uk/journal/90s/1994/documents/Kemp_et_al_1994.pdf

Lines, A. W., J. Parnell, and D. J. Mossman, 1996, Reduction
spheroids from the Upper Carboniferous Hopewell Group,
Dorchester Cape, New Brunswick: notes on geochemistry,
mineralogy and genesis. Atlantic Geology. vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 159-172.
http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/ag/article/view/2085
http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/ag/article/download/2085/2449

van Panhuys-Sigler, M., N. H. Trewin and J. Still, 1996, Roscoelite
associated with reduction spots in Devonian red beds, Gamrie Bay,
Banffshire. Scottish Journal of Geology. vol. 32, pp. 127-132.
http://sjg.lyellcollection.org/content/32/2/127.abstract

They have been found to have form around a variety of objects,
including roots, "organic matter," and, even in one case in
Swedish limestone, meteorites. In many cases, the identity of
what, if anything, was at the center of a reduction haloes remains
unknown. If a “self-organizing” geochemical processes were involved,
there likely never was either a nucleolus or anything else at the center
of a reduction haloe at any time.

Some pictures of the Spokane Formation (Grinnell Formation) can
be seen in “The Rocks around Glacier National Park, Montana:
Introduction to the formations” at
http://mountainbeltway.wordpress.com/2010/08/23/rocks-of-glacier-national-park/

A ways down there is a picture of “Sometimes there are areas of
low oxidation called reduction spots.” as at:
https://farm5.static.flickr.com/4098/4910489039_dac036d1d2.jpg

Yours,

Paul H.

A Canadian Connection To The Grand Canyon?

A Canadian Connection To The Grand Canyon?

Sears, W. J., 2013, Late Oligocene–early Miocene Grand Canyon:
A Canadian connection? GSA Today. vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 4-10

Full text at
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/11/abstract/i1052-5173-23-11-4.htm

PDF file of article at
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/11/pdf/i1052-5173-23-11-4.pdf

PDF of full issue at
ftp://rock.geosociety.org/pub/GSAToday/gt1311.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 23 October 2013

High School Student Discovers Skeleton of Baby Dinosaur (Utah)

High School Student Discovers Skeleton of Baby Dinosaur (Utah)

High School Student Discovers Skeleton of Baby Dinosaur (Utah)
Science Daily, Oct. 22, 2013,
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131022091759.htm

Paleontologists Find Rare Fossil of Young Dinosaur Parasaurolophus
Sci-News.com, Oct 22, 2013,
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/science-fossil-dinosaur-parasaurolophus-01483.html

High school student discovers skeleton of baby dinosaur, press
release, http://dinosaurjoe.org/media/press-release/ and web
page at http://dinosaurjoe.org/

Farke. A. A., and others, 2013, Ontogeny in the tube-crested dinosaur
Parasaurolophus (Hadrosauridae) and heterochrony in hadrosaurids.
PeerJ 1: e182; doi: 10.7717/peerj.182 https://peerj.com/articles/182/

Yours,

Paul H.

Monday, 21 October 2013

Ongoing Geological Research Into Devonian Mass Extinction

Ongoing Geological Research Into Devonian Mass Extinction

Appalachian geology professors collect evidence
of mass extinction that occurred in Central Asia
Appalachian State UniversityNews, October 8, 2013
http://www.news.appstate.edu/2013/10/08/mass-extinction/

Yours,

Paul H.

Forest National Park and Potash, Arizona

Forest National Park and Potash, Arizona

Earth Notes: Potash and the Petrified Forest
KNAU Arizona Public Radio, October 16, 2013
http://knau.org/post/earth-notes-potash-and-petrified-forest

Potash in the park: Miners survey deposits
around Petrified Forest, Arizona Daily Sun
http://azdailysun.com/news/local/potash-in-the-park-miners-survey-deposits-around-petrified-forest/article_57123aa8-07cc-11e3-99f1-001a4bcf887a.html

Major Potash Deposit Near Holbrook, Arizona.
Arizona Geological Survey, 2011
http://www.azgs.az.gov/minerals_potash.shtml
http://www.holbrookbasin.org/potash_deposit.htm

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 20 October 2013

Geologic Map Day

Geologic Map Day

http://www.earthsciweek.org/geologicmap/

The prettiest information resources: Geologic maps
Information Culture, Scientific American by Bonnie
Swoger, October 18, 2013, http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/information-culture/2013/10/18/the-prettiest-information-resources-geologic-maps/

Digital geologic maps of US States
http://mrdata.usgs.gov/geology/state/

Database of the Geologic Map of North America—
adapted from the Map by J.C. Reed, Jr. and others
(2005), U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 424
http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/424/

OneGeology Portal – Geologic map of the world
http://portal.onegeology.org/

Not geological Maps, but still useful collection of
historical topographic maps, which can be
downloaded as GeoPDFs
http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/maps/TopoView/

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 18 October 2013

What Does A Real Astronaut Think Of 'Gravity'?

What Does A Real Astronaut Think Of 'Gravity'?
Forbes Magazine, Oct. 17, 2013
http://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2013/10/17/what-does-a-real-astronaut-think-of-gravity/

Both my wife and i saw the movie and enjoyed it.

I agree with the interview that movies are not reality
and can be forgiven for taking artistic license as they
are meant to be entertainment, not college courses.

Yours,

Paul H.

Corossol Impact Structure, Quebec, Canada

Corossol Impact Structure, Quebec, Canada

Back in 2011, Higgins et al. (2011) published an extended
abstract about what they called the Corossol Impact
Crater, which is a 4-km diameter impact structure that
lies off of the coast of Sept-Iles in Gulf of St Lawrence,
Canada. They suggested that it might be as young as
12,900 BP based upon calibrated radiocarbon dates
from shells in marine sediments that directly overlie the
structure.

However, I am skeptical of it being a terminal Pleistocene
crater in that the colored relief map shown in that extended
abstract show a badly eroded impact structure that has
been strongly modified by erosion. The feature shown in
Figure 1 looks nothing like a pristine impact crater that was
created close to 12,900 years ago. In addition the calibrated
radiocarbon date corresponds exactly to the point in time
that various maps showing reconstructing the deglaciation
of North America indicate that this part of Canada became
ice-free as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted back. Thus, the
12,900 BP date could very well be a minimum date that
indicates only when the site of the impact structure became
ice-free and sediments containing datable could
accumulate after being scoured by a continental ice sheet.
Finally, Higgins et al. (2011) pointed out that this impact
structure could be any age between 12,900 BP and local
470 million year old sedimentary rocks. This left it as an
uncertain candidate for a terminal Pleistocene impact.

More recently, I found an abstract by Locat et al. (2012).
After an analysis of "excellent" multibeam sonar coverage
of the area, they concluded on the basis of its surface
morphology that this impact structure exhibited the
characteristics of glacial erosion. Based upon other
morphological criteria, they estimated the minimum age
of this impact structure to about 20 million years. They
assigned a tentative age to it that ranged between 20 to
470 million years. Although this is still quite a range of
age, the estimated minimum age of 20 million years,
if it holds, would make it far too old to be the result of
an terminal Pleistocene impact. Also, a 20 million year
minimum age seems to be far more consistent with the
eroded appearance of this impact structure than a
12,900 BP age. if this impact structure is glacially
eroded, then it would even more unlikely that this is
the result of a terminal Pleistocene impact given the
glacial history of the region. However, further research
into the age of this impact structure is still needed.

Reference Cited

Higgins M. D., P. Lajeunesse, G. St-Onge, J. Locat, M.
Duchesne, J. Ortiz, and R. Sanfacon, 2011, Bathymetric and
Petrological Evidence for a Young (Pleistocene?) 4-km
Diameter Impact Crater in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence,
Canada. 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
(2011), Abstract #1504.

Locat, J., P. Lajeunesse, G. St-Onge, M. Duchesne,
M. D. Higgins, R. Sanfacon, and J. Ortiz, 2012, A
morphological analysis for estimating the age of a
possible impact structure; the Corossol Structure
on the seafloor of the northwestern Gulf of St
Lawrence Eastern Canada. Congres Geologique
International, Resumes. vol. 34, pp. 3440.

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 16 October 2013

Meteorite pulled from Lake Chebarkul, Russia

Meteorite pulled from Lake Chebarkul, Russia

Meteorite pulled from Russian lake, BBC News, Oct. 16, 2103
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-24550941

Scientists find half-ton chunk of Chelyabinsk meteor on bottom
of Russian lake, Associated Press and The Telegraph
http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/10/16/scientists-find-half-ton-chunk-of-chelyabinsk-meteor-on-bottom-of-russian-lake/

Russian meteor fragment literally breaks the scales,
by Elizabeth Barber, Christian Science Monitor, Oct. 16, 2013
http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2013/1016/Russian-meteor-fragment-literally-breaks-the-scales

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 15 October 2013

Monday, 14 October 2013

Penn Dixie Fossil Site, Blasdell, New York

Penn Dixie Fossil Site, Blasdell, New York

They’ll never run out of fossils at Penn Dixie
by Barbara O’Brien, The Buffalo News,
Oct. 13, 2013, http://www.buffalonews.com/spotlight/theyll-never-run-out-of-fossils-at-penn-dixie-20131013

Penn Dixie Paleontological and Outdoor
Education Center, http://penndixie.org/

Penn Dixie Fossils, http://penndixie.org/paleo/fossils/hp.html

For Goggle Earth fans, the latitude and
longitude of the Penn Dixie Fossil Site is:

Latitude: 42°46'39.92"N (42.777756°)
Longitude: 78°49'55.98"W (-78.832217°)

Google Earth provides a very nice aerial
overview of the Penn Dixie Fossil Site.

Yours,

Paul H.

Age of the Moon and Its Craters

Age of the Moon and Its Craters

Dating the Moon's basins by Emily Lakdawalla, The
Planetary Society, September 26, 2103
http://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2013/09261218-dating-the-moons-basins.html

Fassett, C. I., J. W. Head, S. J. J. Kadish, E. Mazarico,
G. A. Neumann, D. Smith, and M. T. Zuber (in press),
Lunar impact basins: Stratigraphy, sequence and ages
from superposed impact crater populations measured
from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data, J.
Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JE003951, in press.
http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/pip/2011JE003951.shtml

Relative and absolute ages in the histories of Earth and the
Moon: The Geologic Time Scale by Emily Lakdawalla
The Planetary Society, September 30, 2013
http://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2013/09301225-geologic-time-scale-earth-moon.html

Age of the Moon

Moon is younger than first thought, Phys.Org, Sept. 25, 2013
http://phys.org/news/2013-09-moon-younger-thought.html
http://www.space.com/22894-moon-age-100-million-years-younger.html

Origin of the moon, 9:00 am on Monday 23 September
2013 – 5:00 pm on Tuesday 24 September 2013, The
Royal Society, London, Audio recordings are now posted.
http://royalsociety.org/events/2013/origin-moon/

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 12 October 2013

Charles Burney Jr. and the term 'asteroid'

Charles Burney Jr. and the term 'asteroid'

In “Charles Burney Jr. and the term 'asteroid'” at:
http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg115133.html

Martin wrote:

> this sounds interesting:
>
>Greek scholar invented the term asteroid, researcher reveals
>
>http://www.lodinews.com/ap/nation/article_3c86d500-3070-11e3-9637-10604b9f0f42.html

I keep getting error 404 messages for this URL. Below are
additional URLs for people to look at:

Greek scholar invented the term 'asteroid' Stuff.co.nz, October 10, 2013
http://www.stuff.co.nz/science/9262248/Greek-scholar-invented-the-term-asteroid

Local expert reveals who really coined the word 'asteroid'
by Robert Nolin, Sun Sentinel, October 8, 2013
http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/2013-10-08/news/fl-asteroid-word-origin-20131008_1_asteroid-word-planetary-sciences
http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/smartnews/2013/10/where-did-the-word-asteroid-really-come-from/

Yours,

Paul H

A dangerous game of "cosmic roulette"?

A dangerous game of "cosmic roulette"?

The "60 Minutes" segment about near Earth asteroids and
the threat that they pose is now online for viewing. It is:

A dangerous game of "cosmic roulette"? October 6, 2013
http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=50156579n

All about asteroids by 60 Minutes Overtime Staff, October 6, 2013
http://www.cbsnews.com/8334-504803_162-57606239-10391709/all-about-asteroids/

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 11 October 2013

Thursday, 10 October 2013

Chelyabinsk Meteorites Reveal Evidence of Prehistoric Cosmic Collision

Chelyabinsk Meteorites Reveal Evidence of Prehistoric Cosmic Collision

Meteorites from Russian explosion reveal signs of cosmic
crashes by Elizabeth Howell Space.com, NBC News
http://www.nbcnews.com/science/meteorites-russian-explosion-reveal-signs-cosmic-crashes-8C11358914
http://www.space.com/23112-russian-meteor-explosion-meteorites-cosmic-crashes.html

Insights from space rocks left after meteor exploded over
Russia, EarthSky , October 8, 2013‎
http://earthsky.org/space/insights-from-space-rocks-left-after-meteor-exploded-over-russia

Russian meteor was partially formed from hard to spot
'dark asteroid' material, The Telegraph, October 9, 2013
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/10366055/Russian-meteor-was-partially-formed-from-hard-to-spot-dark-asteroid-material.html

An earlier article is:
Russian Meteor Explosion: Space Rock Had Near-Misses
Before Impact by C. Moskowitz, SPACE.com, Aug. 26, 2013 ET
http://www.space.com/22536-russia-meteor-explosion-chelyabinsk-near-miss.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 9 October 2013

Alamo impact, Nevada, Theses (Online)

Alamo impact, Nevada, Theses (Online)

Some online publications about the Alamo
Impact in southeastern Nevada are:

Anderson, J., 2008, Reconstructing the Aftermath
of the Late Devonian Alamo Meteor Impact in
the Pahranagat Range, Southeastern Nevada.
unpublished MS thesis, Department of
Geosciences, Idaho State University, Moscow,
Idaho, May, 2008. 191 pp.
http://geology.isu.edu/thesis/Anderson_Julia_2008.pdf

Retzler, R. J., 2013, Post-Impact Depositional
Environments as a Proxy for Crater. Architecture,
Late Devonian, Alamo Impact Event, Nevada.
unpublished MS thesis, Department of
Geosciences, Idaho State University, Moscow,
Idaho, Summer 2013. 94 pp.
http://geology.isu.edu/thesis/Retzler.Andrew.2013.pdf

Sheffield, J. W. 2011, Reassessing Stratigraphic
Patterns of the Alamo Impact Deposits Using a
Relational Database and GIS Analytical Tools,
Lincoln County, Nevada. unpublished MS
thesis, Department of Geosciences, Idaho State
University, Moscow, Idaho, May 2010,
February 2011. 103 pp.
http://geology.isu.edu/thesis/Sheffield_Joseph_2011.pdf

Thomason, C. J., 2010, Recovery of the carbonate
platform and fauna in the aftermath of the Late
Devonian Alamo Impact, Hiko Hills Range,
Southeastern Nevada. unpublished MS thesis,
Department of Geosciences, Idaho State
University, Moscow, Idaho, May 2010. 257 pp.
http://geology.isu.edu/thesis/Thomason_Carrie_2010_ISU.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

New Research On Libyan Desert Glass

New Research On Libyan Desert Glass

Note: In the below news articles, I am not responsible
for their content. Blame either the reporters or the
original press release for any inaccuracies.

First ever evidence of a comet striking Earth, Physorg.
http://phys.org/news/2013-10-evidence-comet-earth.html

Scientists in Comet Strike Discovery, AllAfrica.com
http://allafrica.com/stories/201310081162.html

Comet Rained ‘Shock Wave of Fire’ on Sahara Desert
By Antony Sguazzin, Bloomberg, October 8, 2013
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-10-08/comet-rained-shock-wave-of-fire-on-sahara-desert.html

Comet collided with earth 28 million years ago:
researchers, Toronto Sun, October 8, 2103
http://www.torontosun.com/2013/10/08/comet-collided-with-earth-28-million-years-ago-researchers

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 6 October 2013

What Did the Continents Look Like Millions of Years Ago?

What Did the Continents Look Like Millions of Years Ago?
An artist-geologist renders the history of the Earth with maps.
by Geoff Manaugh and Nicola Twilley, The Atlantic Sept. 23 2013
http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/09/what-did-the-continents-look-like-millions-of-years-ago/279892/

Paleogeographic and Tectonic History of Western North
America: http://cpgeosystems.com/wnampalgeog.html

Western North America Paleogeographic Maps
http://cpgeosystems.com/wnam.html

Paleogeography (Home Page) http://cpgeosystems.com/

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 4 October 2013

Taphonomy of Fossil Forests Paper (PDF Version)

Taphonomy of Fossil Forests Paper (PDF Version)

The PDF version of a great paper about fossil forests is
online and can be downloaded for free. The paper is:

DiMichele, W. A., and H. J. Falcon-Lang, 2011, Pennsylvanian
'fossil forests' in growth position (T0 assemblages): origin,
taphonomic bias and palaeoecological insights. Journal of the
Geological Society. vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 585-605.

It can be downloaded from:

http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/handle/10088/15971
http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/bitstream/10088/15971/1/paleo_2011_DiMichele_Falcon_Lang_T0Assemblages_JGeolSoc.pdf

Downloadable PDF files of more papers about
Carboniferous plant fossils can be found at
http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/handle/10088/2845/simple-search?query=DiMichele ,
http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/handle/10088/2845/simple-search?query=Pennsylvanian ,
and http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/handle/10088/2845/simple-search?query=Falcon-Lang

Yours,

Paul H.

Literature searches with Google Scholar

Literature searches with Google Scholar

I found the below article, which can be
downloaded for free, quite interesting.

DeGraff, J. V., N. DeGraff, and H. C. Romesburg,
2013, Literature searches with Google Scholar:
Knowing what you are and are not getting. GSA
Today. vol. 23, no. 10, pp 44-45.

The links are:

PDF file at
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/10/pdf/i1052-5173-23-10-44.pdf

Online text at:
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/10/article/i1052-5173-23-10-44.htm
http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/23/10/

My apologies,

Paul H.

Monday, 23 September 2013

Cascade of Events' Caused Cambrian Explosion

Cascade of Events' Caused Cambrian Explosion

Cascade of Events' Caused Sudden Explosion of
Animal Life, Science Daily, September 19, 2013
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130919142202.htm

New Approach to Explaining Evolution's Big Bang
In-Depth, New York Times, September 19, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/20/science/new-approach-to-explaining-evolutions-big-bang.html

The paper is:
M. Paul Smith and David A. T. Harper. Causes of the
Cambrian Explosion. Science, 20 September 2013:
1355-1356 DOI: 10.1126/science.1239450
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6152/1355

Related articles are:
Cambrian explosion was indeed marked by lightning-
fast evolution, NBCNews.com-by Tia Ghose
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6152/1355

and an earlier paper about the Cambrian Explosion:
Peters, S. E., and R. R. Gaines. Formation of the ‘Great
Unconformity’ as a trigger for the Cambrian explosion.
Nature. vol. 484, no. 7394pp. 363-366.

Abstract is at:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v484/n7394/full/nature10969.html

PDF file is at
http://211.144.68.84:9998/91keshi/Public/File/34/484-7394/pdf/nature10969.pdf

While Googling, I accidentally found the above paper is cited by:
Koschwanez, K. H., K. R Foster, and A. W Murray, 2013,
Improved use of a public good selects for the evolution of
undifferentiated multicellularity. eLife 2013;2:e00367.
http://labs.mcb.harvard.edu/murray/publications/Koschwanez_2013_23577233.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 19 September 2013

Extraterrestrial Spinels

Extraterrestrial Spinels

Meteorite Minerals Hint at Earth Extinctions, Climate
Change by Jeremy Hsu, Astrobiology Magazine
http://www.astrobio.net/exclusive/5678/meteorite-minerals-hint-at-earth-extinctions-climate-change

Meteorite minerals offer clues to Earth extinctions,
climate change by Jeremy Hsu Space.com, NBC News
http://www.nbcnews.com/science/meteorite-minerals-offer-clues-earth-extinctions-climate-change-8C11167396

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 17 September 2013

Guidebook to Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta

Guidebook to Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta

Below is a guidebook to Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta.

Koster, E. H., 1983, Field Trip Guidebook - Sedimentology
of the Upper Cretaceous Judith River (Belly River)
Formation, Dinosaur Provincial Park, Open File Report
no. 1983-12. Alberta Research Council; Alberta Geological
Survey.

http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/abstracts/OFR_1983_12.html
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/OFR/PDF/OFR_1983_12.PDF

Other publications about Alberta geology can be searched for at:
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/

Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur_Provincial_Park
http://albertaparks.ca/dinosaur.aspx

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 14 September 2013

Guide to the Geology of Sudbury, Ontario, Impact Structure

Guide to the Geology of Sudbury, Ontario, Impact Structure

The below field trip guidebook should be of interest
to many of the people on the meteorite mailing list.

Rousell, D. H., and G. H. Brown, 2009, Guide to the
Geology of Sudbury, Ontario. Open File Report no. 6243,
Ontario Geological Survey, Toronto, Ontario. 200 pp.
and geological map.

61 MB PDF file at
http://www.geologyontario.mndm.gov.on.ca/mndmfiles/pub/data/imaging/ofr6243//OFR6243.pdf

Related publications are:

Pye, E. G., A. J. Naldrett, and P. E. Giblin, eds., The
Geology and ore deposits of the Sudbury Structure.
Special Volume 1, Ontario Geological Survey,
Toronto, Ontario. 603 pp with additional geological
and geophysical maps, charts, plates, and reprints.

113 MB PDF file at
http://www.geologyontario.mndmf.gov.on.ca/mndmfiles/pub/data/imaging/SV01/SV01.pdf

Rousell, D. H., 1998, Bedrock Geology of the Regional
Municipality of Sudbury. Map Series no P3187, Ontario
Geological Survey, Toronto, Ontario.

PDF file at
http://www.geologyontario.mndmf.gov.on.ca/mndmfiles/pub/data/imaging/P3187/P3187.pdf

More publications can be found using the below web pages.

Geology Ontario - Publications PDF Search
http://www.geologyontario.mndm.gov.on.ca/

Geology Ontario - Publications Search
http://www.geologyontario.mndm.gov.on.ca/

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 13 September 2013

Paper About Using Exterrestrial Impacts to Explain Mass Extinctions

Paper About Using Extraterrestrial Impacts to Explain Mass Extinctions

Below is a recent paper about the evaluation of extraterrestrial
impacts in mass extinctions, which I found both thoughtful and
an interesting read.

Racki, G., 2011, The Alvarez impact theory of mass extinction;
limits to its applicability and the “great expectations syndrome”
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 681–702.
http://www.app.pan.pl/article/item/app20110058.html
http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.4202/app.2011.0058

PDF file at:
http://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app57/app20110058.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 8 September 2013

Online Papers for Multiple Years of NPS "Conference on Fossil Resources"

Online Papers for Multiple Years of NPS "Conference on Fossil Resources"

Either PDF files or web pages for of the 1992, 1994, 2001,
2006, 2009, and 2011 "Conference on Fossil Resources"
can be downloaded from the "Partners in Paleontology:
Conference on Fossil Resources"web page at
http://fossilresources.org/ .

1992 Conference on Fossil Resources: Web page –
http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/grd3_3/index.htm

1992 PDF file –
http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/grd3_3/grd3pdf.pdf

1994 Conference on Fossil Resources: PDF file –
http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/grd4/nsp_paleo_vol4.pdf

1998 Conference on Fossil Resources: Table of Contents –
http://vertpaleo.org/PDFS/27/271792eb-1c0e-4b57-80cf-391fee7854ad.pdf

2001 Conference on Fossil Resources: web page –
http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/fossil_conference_6/toc.htm

2006 Conference on Fossil Resources: web page –
http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/publications.cfm

2006 PDF file –
http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/8CFR_2009_Proceeding_01.pdf

2009 Conference on Fossil Resources: PDF file –
http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/8CFR_2009_Proceeding_01.pdf
and http://www.academia.edu/226013/2009_Proceedings_of_the_Eighth_Conference_on_Fossil_Resources

2011 Conference on Fossil Resources: web page –
http://fossilresources.org/9thCFR.html
PDF file - http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/fossil_conf_9/9CFR%20proceedings.pdf

Murphey, P.C., Evanoff, E., 2011, Paleontology and
stratigraphy of the middle Eocene Bridger Formation,
southern Green River Basin,Wyoming: Proceedings
of the 9th Conference on Fossil Resources, Brigham
Young University Geology Studies. vol. 49, no. A, pp. 83-110
PDF file –
http://www.rockymountainpaleontology.com/bridger/download_pubs/Murphey_and_Evanoff_2011.pdf

More publications at –
http://www.rockymountainpaleontology.com/bridger/downloads.html

Yours,

Paul H

Monday, 2 September 2013

K-Pg Impactor was Likely Carbonaceous Chondrite Asteroid

K-Pg Impactor was Likely Carbonaceous Chondrite Asteroid

Goderis, S., R. Tagle, J. Belza, J. Smit, A. Montanari, F. Vanhaecke,
J. Erzinger, and Ph. Claeys, 2013, Reevaluation of siderophile
element abundances and ratios across the Cretaceous–Paleogene
(K–Pg) boundary: Implications for the nature of the projectile.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 120: 417–446
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2013.06.010
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016703713003438

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 31 August 2013

Zhangye Danxia, Rainbow Hills of China, Gansu Province

Zhangye Danxia, Rainbow Hills of China, Gansu Province

Colourful rock formations in the Zhangye Danxia
Landform Geological Park, the Telegraph
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/picturegalleries/9550531/Colourful-rock-formations-in-the-Zhangye-Danxia-Landform-Geological-Park.html

Magnificent Danxia landform
https://www.youtube.com/v/MasXlXV9fEM

Magnificent Danxia landform in NW China
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/photo/2013-04/02/c_132278768_3.htm

I have not found anything in English about the geology
of these hills. However, like the Painted Desert of
Arizona, the colors likely represent deeply oxidized fossil
soils (paleosols) (oranges and yellows) interbedded
with layers of reduced / unoxidized sediment, possibly
either lake or fluvial deposits.

For the Google Earth fans, the coordinates are
latitude 38.9546, longitude 100.0744. Just insert
“ 38.9546, 100.0744 ” into Google Earth search .

If anyone knows where I might find some information
about their geology, I would appreciate knowing where
it can be found.

Yours,

Paul H.

'Geyser' Erupts at Rome's Fiumicino Airport

'Geyser' Erupts at Rome's Fiumicino Airport

This is interesting. The good sign is that there has
not been any earthquakes, which should accompany,
as a precursor, to something more serious.

'Geyser' Erupts at Rome's Fiumicino Airport
By Marc Lallanilla, August 26, 2013
http://www.livescience.com/39178-geyser-erupts-at-rome-s-fiumicino-airport.html

Rome (Italy): new fumarole near Fiumicino
airport, August 26, 2013, Volcano Discovery
http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/view_news/36609/Rome-Italy-new-fumarole-near-Fiumicino-airport.html

Yours,

Paul H.






Glorieta Meteorite Hunt - "Diggers" episode Tonight NGC

Glorieta Meteorite Hunt - "Diggers" episode Tonight NGC

In “Re: [meteorite-list] Glorieta Hunt - "Diggers" episode Tonight NGC”
at http://www.mail-archive.com/meteorite-list@meteoritecentral.com/msg114491.html ,
Michael Mulgrew Wrote:

“It is much more likely that their policies were a result
of real-world conflicts that happened on BLM land with
real life meteorite hunters and recent falls that occurred
just prior to the policy having been drafted. But wait,
your conjecture is a "could be" statement, too. Such a
vicious circle.”

An example of the “real life” occurrences and “know-
nothings” that make life difficult for the rest of us is:

Treasure Hunters Destroy Idaho’s Historic Oregon
Trail Ruts, Boise State Public Radio, August 28, 2103
http://boisestatepublicradio.org/post/treasure-hunters-destroy-idaho-s-historic-oregon-trail-ruts
http://www.spokesman.com/blogs/boise/2013/aug/28/treasure-hunters-cause-ghastly-damage-historic-oregon-trail-ruts-near-snake-river/

Oregon Trail Ruts Damaged, BLM Seeks Information
Twin Falls Times-News, August 22, 2013
http://magicvalley.com/news/local/mini-cassia/oregon-trail-ruts-damaged-blm-seeks-information/article_bcd17d7e-0b4e-11e3-bab6-0019bb2963f4.html
http://magicvalley.com/news/local/mini-cassia/it-s-tragic-officials-bemoan-damage-to-oregon-trail/article_f2f082c0-201b-5df5-abfc-183a6376d012.html

Yours,

Paul H.