Including Original "Paul H. Letters" Copyright © 1996-2017 Paul V. Heinrich - All rights reserved.



Thursday, 31 December 2015

Forbidden Data: Wyoming Criminalized Citizen Science

Forbidden Data: Wyoming Criminalized Citizen Science

State legislatures do some weird stuff. - Wyoming, USA

Forbidden Data: Wyoming just criminalized
citizen science.by Justin Pidot, Slate
http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2015/05/wyoming_law_against_data_collection_protecting_ranchers_by_ignoring_the.html

Bill Text: WY SF0012
Bill Title: Trespassing to collect data.
https://legiscan.com/WY/text/SF0012/id/1151882

Wyoming Criminalizes Citizen Science
Courthouse News service, May 18, 2015
http://www.courthousenews.com/2015/05/18/wyoming-criminalizes-citizen-science.htm

You Can go to Jail For Doing Citizen
Science in Wyoming.Popular Science
http://www.popsci.com/you-can-go-jail-doing-citizen-science-wyoming

Wikipedia discussions
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_science#Limitations

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 25 December 2015

Gullies on Mars sculpted by dry ice rather than liquid water?

Gullies on Mars sculpted by dry ice rather than liquid water?

Gullies on Mars sculpted by dry ice rather than liquid water?
Astronomy Now, December 23, 2015
https://astronomynow.com/2015/12/23/gullies-on-mars-sculpted-by-dry-ice-rather-than-liquid-water/

Gullies on Mars sculpted by dry ice rather than liquid water
Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale (CNRS/Université Paris-Sud)
Science Daily, December 22, 2015, http://www2.cnrs.fr/en/2671.htm
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/12/151222082255.htm

Pilorget, C., and F. Forget, 2015, Formation of gullies on Mars by
debris flows triggered by CO2 sublimation. Nature Geoscience, 2015;
DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2619
http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v9/n1/full/ngeo2619.html
Meeting abstract: http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2015/pdf/2471.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 20 December 2015

Review Paper About Extraterrestrial Rivers

Review Paper About Extraterrestrial Rivers

V. R. Baker, C. W. Hamilton, D. M. Burr, V. C. Gulick,
G. Komatsu, W. Luo, J. W. Rice, and J. A. P. Rodriguez
2015, Fluvial geomorphology on Earth-like planetary
surfaces: A review. Geomorphology, Vol. 245, pp. 149-182,
(September 2015) doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.05.002

Abstract at
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X1500255X

PDF file at either https://goo.gl/MnLNqP or https://goo.gl/dGBhDx

Yours,

Paul H

Life-style of 3 Billion-year-old Microbes, Barberton, South Africa, Tidalites

Life-style of 3 Billion-year-old Microbes, Barberton, South Africa, Tidalites

3 billion-year-old fossils show early microbes lived in cavities
Daily News, New Scientist, December 16, 2015
https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn28678-3-billion-year-old-fossils-show-early-microbes-lived-in-cavities/

Three billion-year-old fossils present early microbes lived
in cavities. Sun Journal Observer, December 18, 2015
http://www.sunnewsjournal.com/uncategorized/3-billion-year-old-fossils-show-early-microbes-lived-in-cavities/16816/

The Paper is:

Homann, M., C. Heubeck, T. R.R. Bontognali, A.-S. Bouvier,
L. P. Baumgartner, and A. Airo, 2015, Evidence for cavity-
dwelling microbial life in 3.22 Ga tidal deposits. Geology.
First published online December 4, 2015, doi: 10.1130/G37272.1
http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2015/12/04/G37272.1.abstract

A related paper is:

Homann, M., C. Heubeck, A. Airo, and M. M. Tice, 2015,
2015, Morphological adaptations of 3.22 Ga-old tufted
microbial mats to Archean coastal habitats (Moodies
Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa).
Precambrian Research, v. 266,,p. 47–64,
doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2015.04.018.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301926815001308

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 17 December 2015

Hunting for Meteorites in Antarctic Glaciers

Hunting for Meteorites in Antarctic Glaciers

Scientists Are Hunting for Preserved Meteorites in Antarctic Glaciers,
Motherboard
http://motherboard.vice.com/en_ca/read/scientists-are-hunting-for-preserved-meteorites-in-antarctic-glaciers

Space Rock Hunters Are About to Invade Antarctica Smithsonian, October,
5, 2015
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/space-rock-hunters-are-about-invade-antarctica-180956777/

An unrelated news article is:

Wild scientists: academics in their natural habitat – in pictures
The Guardian, Tamara Dean, November 16, 2015
http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2015/nov/17/wild-scientists-academics-in-their-natural-habitat-in-pictures

Yours,

Paul H

The Beautiful Art of Meteorite Science

The Beautiful Art of Meteorite Science

The Beautiful Art of Meteorite Science
by Becky Ferreira, Motherboard, February 23 2015
http://motherboard.vice.com/en_ca/read/the-beautiful-art-of-meteorite-science?

SciCafe Imaging Space rocks, American Museum of Natural
History Podcast: Download | RSS | iTunes (1 hour 10 mins, 101 MB)
http://www.amnh.org/podcast/media/2014-12-03_scicafe_space_rocks.mp3
http://www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/podcasts/scicafe-imaging-space-rocks

Watch an abridged video of the lecture at:
http://www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/podcasts/scicafe-imaging-space-rocks

Another article is:

Methane Found in Crushed Martian Meteorites Suggests Mars
Could Support Life by Matthew Braga, Motherboard, Canada
http://motherboard.vice.com/en_ca/read/methane-found-in-crushed-martian-meteorites-suggests-mars-could-support-life

Yours,

Paul H

Latest Rounds of Younger Dryas Impact Debate

Latest Rounds of Younger Dryas Impact Debate

Original Paper

Kennett, J. P., D. J. Kennett, B. J. Culleton, J. E. A. Tortosa,
J. L. Bischoff, T. E. Bunch, I. R. Daniel, Jr., J. M. Erlandson,
D. Ferraro, R. B. Firestone, A. C. Goodyear, I. Israde-
Alcántara, J. R. Johnson, J. F. J. Pardo, D. R. Kimbel, M. A.
LeCompte, N. H. Lopinot, W. C. Mahaney, A. M. T. Moore,
C. R. Moore, J. H. Ray, T. W. Stafford, Jr., K. B. Tankersley,
J. H. Wittkee, W. S. Wolbach, and A. West, 2015, Bayesian
chronological analyses consistent with synchronous age
of 12,835–12,735 Cal B.P. for Younger Dryas boundary
on four continents. Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States. vol. 112, no. 32, E4344–E4353,
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1507146112

Abstract: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/32/E4344.abstract

Supporting Data:
http://www.pnas.org/content/112/32/E4344/suppl/DCSupplemental

PDF:
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jon_Erlandson/publication/280494993_Bayesian_chronological_analyses_consistent_with_synchronous_age_of_1283512735_Cal_B.P._for_Younger_Dryas_boundary_on_four_continents/links/55b798f508ae092e96572497.pdf

and https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jon_Erlandson

Comments

Holliday, V. T., 2015, Problematic dating of claimed
Younger Dryas boundary impact proxies. Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States.
vol. 112, no. 49, E6721, 1 p., doi: 10.1073/pnas.1518945112

Abstract: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/49/E6721.extract

Boslough, M., K. Nicoll, T. L. Daulton, A. C. Scott, P. Claeys,
J. L. Gill, J. R. Marlon, and Patrick J. Bartlein, 2015,
Incomplete Bayesian model rejects contradictory radiocarbon
data for being contradictory. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States. vol. 112, no. 49,
E6722, 1 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1519917112

Abstract: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/49/E6722.extract

PDF:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284720738_Incomplete_Bayesian_model_rejects_contradictory_radiocarbon_data_for_being_contradictory
and
https://www.academia.edu/19298512/Incomplete_Bayesian_model_rejects_contradictory_radiocarbon_data_for_being_contradictory

Reply

Kennett, J. P., D. J. Kennett, B. J. Culleton, J. E. A.
Tortosa, T. E. Bunch, J. M. Erlandson, J. R. Johnson,
J. F. J. Pardo, M. A. LeCompte, W. C. Mahaney, K. B.
Tankersley, J. H. Wittke, W. S. Wolbach, and A. West, 2015,
Reply to Holliday and Boslough et al.: Synchroneity of
widespread Bayesian-modeled ages supports Younger Dryas
impact hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States vol. 112, no. 49, E6723-
E6724, 2 pp.; published ahead of print November 24, 2015.

Abstract: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/49/E6723.extract

PDF:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284707332_Reply_to_Holliday_and_Boslough_et_al_Synchroneity_of_widespread_Bayesian-modeled_ages_supports_Younger_Dryas_impact_hypothesis

Other PDFs at:
1. https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Younger_Dryas_impact ,
2. https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Younger_Dryas_Boundary_Impact ,
and 3. https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Younger_Dryas_impact

Web page

Academic Bun Fight: the Pleistocene/Holocene Boundary
and the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis. The Dragon's
Tales Ramblings of a Curiosity Seeker, November 29, 2015
http://thedragonstales.blogspot.com/2015/11/academic-bun-fight-pleistoceneholocene.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 16 December 2015

Ordovician Impact Ejecta From Northern Illinois?

Ordovician Impact Ejecta From Northern Illinois?

Today, I found the rather interesting abstract. I do not
know what to make of it. It would be interesting to see
if this material might possibly be contemporaneous
with the Scandinavian fossil meteorites when I have
time. the abstract is:

Read, W. F., 1986, Fragments of Rock from a Probable
Impact Ejecta Deposit in Ordovician Sediments of Northern
Illinois. Lunar and Planetary Science. vol. XVII, pp. 693-694.
Abstract. Bibliographic Code: 1986LPI....17..693R
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986LPI....17..693R
http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1986LPI....17..693R&defaultprint=YES&filetype=.pdf

For an article about the Scandinavian fossil meteorites,
go see Tiny Traces of a Big Asteroid Breakup by Linda M. V.
Martel, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology
http://www.psrd.hawaii.edu/Mar04/fossilMeteorites.html
http://www.psrd.hawaii.edu/Mar04/PSRD-fossilMeteorites.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.



Did Chicxulub Impact Trigger Global, Lethal Algal Bloom?

Did Chicxulub Impact Trigger Global, Lethal Algal Bloom?

Dino-Killing Asteroid Impact Triggered Lethal Algal Bloom
by Laura Geggel, Live Science, December 14, 2015
http://www.livescience.com/53075-asteroid-marine-extinction.html

Dinosaur-killing asteroid may have caused global algal
bloom, marine extinction Posted by Lillian Steenblik
Hwang, AGU Blogosphere, Dcemebr 4, 2015
http://blogs.agu.org/geospace/2015/12/04/11769/

The paper is:

Parkos, D., A. Alexeenko, M. Kulakhmetov, B. C. Johnson,
H. J. Melosh, 2015, NOx production and rainout from
Chicxulub impact ejecta reentry. First published:
12 December 2015, DOI: 10.1002/2015JE004857
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JE004857/full

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 15 December 2015

Impact Origin of Archean Cratons

Impact Origin of Archean Cratons

Impact origin of archean cratons: Learning from Venus
PhysOrg, August 28, 2015
http://phys.org/news/2015-08-impact-archean-cratons-venus.html
http://www.sciencenewsline.com/news/2015082813370021.html

Hansen, V. L., 2015, Impact origin of Archean cratons
Lithosphere, October 2015, vol. 7, p0. 563-578, doi:10.1130/L371.1
http://lithosphere.geoscienceworld.org/content/7/5/563.abstract

a related paper is:

Ingle, S., and M. F. Coffin, 2004, Impact origin for the greater
Ontong Java Plateau?: Earth and Planetary Science Letters,
v. 218, p. 123–134, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03) 00629-0.

PDF file at:http://www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Ingle_Coffin_EPSL04.pdf
Also see http://www.mantleplumes.org/OJ_Impact.html

and

Hansen, V. L., 2006, Geologic constraints on crustal plateau
surface histories, Venus: The lava pond and bolide impact
hypotheses, Journal Geophysical Research. vol. 111,
E11010, 22 pp., doi:10.1029/2006JE002714.

PDF file at:
http://www.d.umn.edu/dees/research/planetaryLab/documents/HansenJGR06.pdf

Another article about extraterrestrial impacts:

Meteorite Impacts on Early Oceans May Have Created
DNA Building Blocks, Sci-News, August 18, 2015,
http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/chemistry/science-meteorite-impacts-oceans-dna-03143.html
http://www.astrobio.net/topic/origins/origin-and-evolution-of-life/meteorite-impacts-can-create-dna-building-blocks/

Furukawa Y., H. Nakazawa, T. Sekine T. Kobayashi, and T. Kakegawa,
2015, Nucleobases and amino acids formation through impacts of
meteorites on the early ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
vol. 429, pp. 216–222.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X15004926


Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 13 December 2015

New Paper About Impact Origin of and Crater Location for Stac Fada Member (Scotland)

New Paper About Impact Origin of and Crater Location for Stac Fada Member (Scotland)

Since 2008, there has been an ongoing discussion about
whether the Stac Fada Member of the Stoer Formation of
the northwest coast of Scotland as to whether it is the
result of either a volcanic caldera eruption or an
extraterrestrial impact. Earlier, it was argued to be either
a fluidised peperite or a volcanic mudflow. The most recent
paper supports the impact origin of the Stac Fada Member
and proposes the location for a possible impact crater
beneath Scotland. It is:

Simms, M. J., 2015, The Stac Fada impact ejecta deposit
and the Lairg Gravity Low: evidence for a buried
Precambrian impact crater in Scotland? Proceedings of
the Geologists' Association. vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 742-761.
Abstract at
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001678781500098X

Online, there is:

Hossain, Md. S., 2015, Quantification of Impact-Induced
Structures: An Analysis of Stress- and Scale-Dependence of
Brittle Deformation Processes. unpublished PhD.
Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany
https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/doc/1256336/1256336.pdf

and

Saunders, N. J., K. Amor, S. P. Hesselbo, and D. Porcelli,
2015, Geochemistry of a Precambrian impactite: The
Stac Fada Member, NW Scotland. Goldschmidt 2015 Abstracts
http://goldschmidt.info/2015/uploads/abstracts/finalPDFs/2776.pdf

Meteorite impact and PGEs in Scotland
Christopher Spencer, Traveling Geologist, 2013,
http://www.travelinggeologist.com/2013/05/meteorite-impact-and-pges-in-scotland/­­­­

A shocking discovery in Scotland with Tim Johnson
Christopher Spencer, Traveling Mineralogist, 2015,
http://www.travelinggeologist.com/2015/10/a-shocking-discovery-in-scotland-with-tim-johnson/

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 6 December 2015

The Extinction of the Dinosaurs - Open Access Paper

The Extinction of the Dinosaurs - Open Access Paper

Brusatte, S. L., R. J. Butler, P. M. Barrett, M. T. Carrano, D. C. Evans,
G. T. Lloyd, P. D. Mannion, M. A. Norell, D. J. Peppe, P. Upchurch, and
T. E. Williamson, 2015, The extinction of the dinosaurs. Biological
reviews. vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 628-642.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/brv.12128/full
PDF file at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/brv.12128/epdf
Abstract at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/brv.12128/abstract

Yours,

Paul H

Middle Jurassic Sauropod Tracks, Isle of Skye in Scotland

Middle Jurassic Sauropod Tracks, Isle of Skye in Scotland

Before There Were Tourists, Dinosaurs Strolled
Scotland's Isle Of Skye, Joe Palca, All Things,
Considered, NPR, December 4, 2015
http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/12/01/458048445/before-there-were-tourists-dinosaurs-strolled-scotlands-isle-of-skye

Hundreds of dinosaur tracks found in Scottish island
of Skye by John Ross, The Australian, December 2, 2015
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/hundreds-of-dinosaur-tracks-found-in-scottish-island-of-skye/story-e6frg6so-1227630281293

The open access paper is:
Brusatte, S. L., T. J. Challands, D. A. Ross, and M.
Wilkinson (2015) Sauropod dinosaur trackways in
a Middle Jurassic lagoon on the Isle of Skye, Scotland.
Scottish Journal of Geology (advance online publication)
http://sjg.lyellcollection.org/content/early/2015/11/18/sjg2015-005.abstract

Open Access PDF at
http://sjg.lyellcollection.org/content/early/2015/11/18/sjg2015-005.full.pdf+html

Yours,
Paul H.

How wind sculpted Earth's largest dust deposit (Chinese Loess)

How wind sculpted Earth's largest dust deposit (Chinese Loess)

How wind sculpted Earth's largest dust deposit
University of Arizona, September 1, 2015
http://phys.org/news/2015-09-sculpted-earth-largest-deposit.html and
https://uanews.arizona.edu/story/how-wind-sculpted-the-earth-s-largest-dust-deposit

From dust to dust: Quaternary wind erosion of the Mu
Us Desert and Loess Plateau, China by Alicia, university
of Arizona, http://www.geo.arizona.edu/node/592

Abstract at
http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2015/07/28/G36724.1.abstract

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 5 December 2015

Review of "Magician of the Gods”

Review of "Magician of the Gods”

Jason Colavito has published a comprehensive review of
the much touted, by some parties, “Magician of the Gods.”

The review is “Review of Magician of the Gods” by Jason
Colavito at:
http://www.jasoncolavito.com/magicians-of-the-gods-review.html#.VmJpR4SoWdg

Other related articles by Jason Colavito are:

Graham Hancock May Not Be Aware His New Book Is About
Watchers and Nephilim, Jason Colavito blog, July 30, 2015
http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/graham-hancock-may-not-be-aware-his-new-book-is-about-watchers-and-nephilim

Graham Hancock's Bizarre Attack on Me, Jason Colavito blog,
http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/graham-hancocks-bizarre-attack-on-me

Graham Hancock's "Mysterious Universe" Pity Party, Jason
Colavito blog, October 9, 2015
http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/graham-hancocks-mysterious-universe-pity-party

Sociologist Claims "Hubris" of Archaeology Resulted in
Conspiracy to Silence Graham Hancock, Jason Colavito
blog, November 13, 2015
http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/sociologist-claims-hubris-of-archaeology-resulted-in-conspiracy-to-silence-graham-hancock

Graham Hancock Accuses Media of "Almost a Deliberate
Misinformation Campaign" to Discredit Him, Jason Colavito
blog, November 3, 2015
http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/graham-hancock-accuses-media-of-almost-a-deliberate-misinformation-campaign-to-discredit-him

Graham Hancock: Buy My Book to "Put One Finger Up to the
Mainstream" Jason Colavito blog, Nov. 22, 2015
http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/graham-hancock-buy-my-book-to-put-one-finger-up-to-the-mainstream

I have purchased my own copy of Magician of the Gods. So far,
it is quite remarkable how both Graham Hancock and Randall
Carlson both either overlook or just ignore the abundance of
published research and evidence that utterly demolishes their
ideas about the Palouse Loess and the Channeled Scablands being
the result of a single massive flood created by catastrophic impact.

Yours,

Paul H.

Sept. 25, 1955 Article About 1954 Alabama Meteorite Strike

Sept. 25, 1955 Article About 1954 Alabama Meteorite Strike

Meteorite strikes Elizabeth Hodges, a woman from
Alabama in 1954, New York Daily News, November 30, 2015
http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/meteorite-strikes-woman-alabama-1954-article-1.2450664

Yours,
Paul H.

Argentine police recover 2.5 tons of meteorite pieces

Argentine police recover 2.5 tons of meteorite pieces

Argentine police recover 2.5 tons of meteorite pieces
AFP-JIJI, The Japan Times, November 27, 2015
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2015/11/27/world/crime-legal-world/argentine-police-recover-2-5-tons-meteorite-pieces/

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 27 November 2015

Wednesday, 25 November 2015

Shortfall of 135,000 Trained Geoscientists Predicted

Shortfall of 135,000 Trained Geoscientists Predicted - Downloadable PDF

Cramer, B. D., K. J. Lewandowski, A. Goldstein, P. Asher, J. Ryan, D. I. Schofield, R. Buchanan, R. Denne, W. I.Ausich, T. R.A. Vandenbroucke, S. Lundy, T. Priest, and R. J. Clark,
2015, Who will build the 21st century? Addressing critical demographic gaps in the geosciences. GSA Today vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 36-37

Friday, 20 November 2015

New Map Of Earth's Groundwater Resources

New Map Of Earth's Groundwater Resources

Study is first to map Earth's hidden groundwater
University of Victoria, PhysOrg, November 16, 2015

http://phys.org/news/2015-11-earth-hidden-groundwater.html

Earth's hidden groundwater mapped: Less than
six per cent renewable within a human lifetime

University of Victoria, November 16, 2015
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151116120608.htm

Gleeson, T., K. M. Befus, S. Jasechko, E. Luijendijk,
and M. B. Cardenas, 2015, The global volume and
distribution of modern groundwater. Nature
Geoscience. DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2590

http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo2590.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Impact Origin of 775 AD Radiocarbon Spike (Anomaly) Disputed

Impact Origin of 775 AD Radiocarbon Spike (Anomaly) Disputed

Usoskin, I. G., and G. A. Kovaltsov, 2015, The carbon-14
spike in the 8th century was not caused by a cometary
impact on Earth. Icarus. vol. 260, pp. 475–476

Abstract at
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514003200
PDF file at http://cc.oulu.fi/~usoskin/personal/Icarus_2015.pdf
and preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.5945 .

More Papers In List of publications: Ilya G. Usoskin at
http://cc.oulu.fi/~usoskin/personal/List.html

For background information about the 775 AD
Radiocarbon Spike, look at:

774–775 carbon-14 spike
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/774–775_carbon-14_spike

Jull, A. J. T., I. P. Panyushkina, T. E. Lange, V. V. Kukarskih,
V. S. Myglan, K. J. Clark, M. W. Salzer, G. S. Burr, and S. W.
Leavitt, 2014, Excursions in the 14C record at A.D. 774–775
in tree rings from Russia and America. Geophysical Research
Letters. vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 3004-3010.
Abstract at
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL059874/abstract
PDF file at
http://www.geo.arizona.edu/sites/www.geo.arizona.edu/files/JullAGU.pdf

Neuhauser, R., and D. L. Neuhauser, 2011, Variations of
14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 – due to solar activity.
Astronomische Nachrichten / AN 999, no. 88, 789 – 813.
PDF at http://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06745.pdf and
http://www.science-media.org/userfiles/87/presentations/87_presentation_33.pdf


This is my 9th try at posting this post. All of the previous
ones have disappeared into the ether never to seen of
acknowledged.

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 19 November 2015

Has the Earth been exposed to supernovae within the last 300 kyr?

Has the Earth been exposed to supernovae within the last 300 kyr?

Melott, A. L., I. G. Usoskin, G. A. Kovaltsov,
and C. M. Laird, 2015, Has the Earth been exposed
to numerous supernovae within the last 300 kyr?
International Journal of Astrobiology. 14(3):375–378
doi:10.1017/S1473550414000512

"ABSTRACT: We show that Firestone (2014) contains
numerous errors in the application of past research.
F14 overestimates likely nitrate and 14C production
from moderately nearby supernovae by about four
orders of magnitude. Moreover, the results are based on
wrongly selected (obsolete) nitrate and 14C datasets.
The use of correct and up-to- date datasets does not
confirm the claimed results. The claims in the paper
are invalidated."

PDF file at http://cc.oulu.fi/~usoskin/personal/Melott_2015.pdf
and http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.5141 .

Also, there is "Comment on: “Observation of 23
Supernovae that exploded <300 pc from Earth
during the past 300 kyr” by R.B. Firestone"
arXiv.org > astro-ph > arXiv:1406.5141v1
Astrophysics > Earth and Planetary Astrophysics at:
http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.5141v1 ,
http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Melott_A/0/1/0/all/0/1 ,
and
http://fermilab.voxcharta.org/2014/06/19/comment-on-observation-of-23-supernovae-that-exploded-300-pc-from-earth-during-the-past-300-kyr-by-r-b-firestone/

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 18 November 2015

Rethinking Supervolcanoes

Rethinking Supervolcanoes

Rethinking Supervolcanoes: Study Indicates We
Need to Monitor Potential Eruptions Differently
by Liz Ahlberg, Illinois News Bureau, November 2015
http://www.las.illinois.edu/news/2015/supervolcanoes15/

Patricia, M. G., E. B. Grosfils, and S. L. de Silva,
2015, Catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions II:
The subordinate role of magma buoyancy as an
eruption trigger. Journal of Volcanology and
Geothermal Research. vol. 305, pp. 100–113.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037702731500308X

Other paper no. 1

Supereruptions driven by magma buoyancy
European Research Council
http://critmag.org/2014/01/05/supereruptions-driven-by-magma-buoyancy/

Caricchi, L., C. J. Annen, J. D. Blundy, G. Simpson,
and V. Pinel, 2014, Frequency and magnitude of
volcanic eruptions controlled by magma injection
and buoyancy. Nature Geoscience.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2041.

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/259841938_Frequency_and_magnitude_of_volcanic_eruptions_controlled_by_magma_injection_and_buoyancy
http://www.academia.edu/13738087/Frequency_and_magnitude_of_volcanic_eruptions_controlled_by_magma_injection_and_buoyancy

Other paper no. 2

Karlstrom, L., H. M. Wright, and C. R. Bacon, 2015,
The effect of pressurized magma chamber growth on
melt migration and pre-caldera vent locations through
time at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon. Earth
and Planetary Science Letters. vol. 412, pp. 209–219.
http://pages.uoregon.edu/leif/epsl_2015_Karlstrom.pdf
http://pages.uoregon.edu/leif/#!page-science

Other paper no. 3

Supereruptions triggered by melt buoyancy
by Simone Ulmer, News, July 6, 2014
https://www.ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/eth-news/news/2014/01/supereruptions-triggered-by-melt-buoyancy.html

Malfait, W. J., R. Seifert, S. Petitgirard, J.-P, Perrillat,
M. Mezouar, T. Ota, E. Nakamura, P. Lerch, and
C. Sanchez-Valle, 2014, Supervolcano eruptions driven b
y melt buoyancy in large silicic magma chambers. Nature
Geoscience. vol. 7, pp. 122–125.
http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v7/n2/full/ngeo2042.html
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/259572788_Supervolcano_eruptions_driven_by_melt_buoyancy_in_large_silicic_magma_chambers

Yours,

Paul H

Sunday, 15 November 2015

Evidence for Primordial Water in Earth’s Deep Mantle

Evidence for Primordial Water in Earth’s Deep Mantle

Was Earth's water actually here all along?
by Eva Botkin-Kowacki, Christian Science Monitor
http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/1112/Was-Earth-s-water-actually-here-since-the-very-beginning

UH researchers shed new light on the origins of Earth's water
UH System Current News, University of Hawai
http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/info/press-releases/water-origins/

Baffin Island provides insights into origin of Earth's water
American Association for the Advancement of Science
SpaceRef, November 12, 2015
http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=47326

Earth may have kept its own water rather than getting
it from asteroids, Science /AAAS, November 12, 2015
http://news.sciencemag.org/earth/2015/11/earth-may-have-kept-its-own-water-rather-getting-it-asteroids

Earth's Water May Be as Old as the Earth Itself
by Sarah Zielinski, Smithsonian , November 12, 2015
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/ist/?next=/science-nature/earths-water-may-be-old-earth-itself-180957262/

The paper is:

Hallis, H. J., G. R. Huss, K. Nagashima, G. J. Taylor,
S. A. Halldórsson, D. R. Hilton, M. J. Mottl, and K. J.
Meech, 2015, Evidence for primordial water in Earth’s
deep mantle. Science, vol. 350, no. 6262, pp. 795-797.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/350/6262/795.short

Yours,

Paul H.

Saturday, 14 November 2015

Mass Extinctions Hit Large Animals the Hardest

Mass Extinctions Hit Large Animals the Hardest

Mass extinctions hit large animals the hardest: Small
vertebrates flourish after ctastrophes, Daily Mail
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3315741/Mass-extinctions-hit-large-animals-hardest-Small-vertebrates-flourish-deadly-global-catastrophes.html

Mass extinctions don't favor large vertebrates,
Science Codex, November 12, 2105
http://www.sciencecodex.com/mass_extinctions_dont_favor_large_vertebrates-169695

Ancient mass extinction led to dominance of tiny fish
University of Pennsylvania, PhysOrg, November 12, 2015
http://phys.org/news/2015-11-ancient-mass-extinction-dominance-tiny.html

After Mass Extinction: Just Animals at Extremes
Discovery News, November 12, 2105
http://news.discovery.com/animals/sharks/after-mass-extinction-just-animals-at-extremes-151112.htm

Sallan, L., and A. K. Galimberti, 2015, Body-size
reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian
mass extinction. Science. vol. 350, no. 6262, pp. 812-815.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/350/6262/812

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 13 November 2015

Online Guides to Scandinavian and Baltic impact Structures and Fossils

Online Guides to Scandinavian and Baltic impact Structures and Fossils

I recently found a few online guides to Scandinavian and
Baltic impact structures. They are:

Lindström, M. B. Schmitz, E. Sturkell, and J. Ormö, 2008,
Palaeozoic impact craters, 33 IGC excursion No 10, August
15 – 20, 2008. Naturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo,
Oslo, Norway.
http://iugs.org/33igc/fileshare/filArkivRoot/coco/FieldGuides/No%2010%20Palaeozoic%20Impact%20Craters.pdf
https://web.archive.org/web/20150224171201/http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/EntryPage-c5006-p5001-o12059-l1-p5003.html
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/EntryPage-c5006-p5001-o12059-l1-p5003.html

Kalleson, E., T. Jahren and H. Dypvik, 2008. Excursion
guide to Gardnos meteorite crater (Norway). 33 IGC
excursion No 10, August 15 – 20, 2008. Naturhistorisk
Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/EntryPage-c11010-p5006-o10530-l9-p5003.html
PDF file:
http://iugs.org/33igc/fileshare/filArkivRoot/coco/FieldGuides/No+102+Gardnos+field+guide[1].pdf
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228646509_Excursion_guide_to_Gardnos_meteorite_crater

Willman, S., J. Plado, A. Raukas, and H. Bauert, 2010,
Meteorite impact craters – geotourism in the central
Baltic. NGO GEOGuide Baltoscandia. Uppsala University
and University of Tartu, Tallinn.
http://www.centralbalticgeotourism.eu/travelguides/book_cbmeteoritecraters.html
PDF file:
http://www.centralbalticgeotourism.eu/resources/pdfs/metcraters_100dpi_web_s.pdf

Geotourism on Central Baltic islands
http://www.centralbalticgeotourism.eu/travelguides.html

For the fossil hunters on the list, there also are guides
related to the fossils of Scandinavia Region.

Bruton, D. L., and J. F. Bockelie, 2008, Classical fossil
localities in the Oslo area, 33 IGC Excursion, No 104,
August 10th, 2008. Naturhistorisk Museum, University
of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/EntryPage-c5006-p5001-o12059-l1-p5003.html
PDF file:
http://iugs.org/33igc/fileshare/filArkivRoot/coco/FieldGuides/No%20104%20Classical%20Fossil%20Localities.pdf
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/EntryPage-c11010-p5006-o10530-l9-p5003.html
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/LayoutPage-c11694-p5097.html

Larsen, B. T., and and S. Olaussen, 2008, The
Palaeozoic geology of the Oslo Region, The Outer
Oslofjord area. Notess to the localities, map and photos
33 IGC Excursion, No. 25A. Friday, August 8th, 2008.
Naturhistorisk Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/LayoutPage-c11740-p5101.html
PDF file:
http://iugs.org/33igc/fileshare/filArkivRoot/coco/FieldGuides/No_25a_Endagsekskursjon_ytre_Oslofjord_7_8_2008.pdf
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/EntryPage-c11010-p5006-o11778-l6-p5003.html

Bockelie, J. B., B. T. Larsen, and S. Olaussen, 2008,

The Palaeozoic geology of the Oslo Region, The Inner
Oslofjord area 33. IGC Excursion, No. 25B. Friday,
August 12th, 2008. Naturhistorisk Museum, University
of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/LayoutPage-c11740-p5101.html
PDF file:
http://iugs.org/33igc/fileshare/filArkivRoot/coco/FieldGuides/No_25(b)_Endagsekskursjon_indre_Oslofjord_12_8_2008_versjon_3.pdf
http://iugs.org/33igc/coco/EntryPage-c11010-p5006-o11778-l6-p5003.html

Mikael Calner, Per Ahlberg, Oliver Lehnert & Mikael
Erlström,2013, The Lower Palaeozoic of southern Sweden
and the Oslo Region, Norway: Field Guide for the 3rd
Annual Meeting of the IGCP project 591. Sveriges
geologiska undersökning, Oslo, Norway.
http://www.geology.lu.se/mikael-erlstrom/publication/4178760
PDF file: http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/rm/rm133-rapport.pdf
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/275152913_Calner_M._et_al._(2013)_The_Lower_Palaeozoic_of_southern_Sweden_and_the_Oslo_Region_Norway_..._IGCP_591

Budd, G. E., T. Meidla, and S. Willman, 2011, Fossils
& Rocks – geotourism in the central Baltic. c NGO
GEOGuide Baltoscandia. Departmnet of Earth Sciences,
Uppsala University, Tallinn.
http://www.centralbalticgeotourism.eu/travelguides/book_fossils.html
PDF File:
http://www.centralbalticgeotourism.eu/resources/pdfs/fossils_100dpi_web_s.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Monday, 9 November 2015

Bangkok Bolide Puzzles Pilot

Bangkok Bolide Puzzles Pilot

Bright greenish flash while in Yangon FIR
http://www.pprune.org/rumours-news/570027-bright-greenish-flash-while-yangon-fir.html

Rumours & News Forum, PPRuNe Forums
(The Professional Pilots Rumour Network).
http://www.pprune.org/rumours-news-13/

Your

Paul H.

Re: [meteorite-list] Asteroid, Meteorite Impacts Can Preserve Biodata for Millions of Years

Re: [meteorite-list] Asteroid, Meteorite Impacts Can Preserve Biodata for Millions of Years

Ron Baalke posted:

>
http://www.sci-news.com/geology/science-asteroid-meteorite-impacts-biodata-01867.html
>
>Asteroid, Meteorite Impacts Can Preserve Biodata
>for Millions of Years Sci-News.com Apr 18, 2014

the paper is:

Howard, K. T., M. J. Bailey, D. Berhanu, P. A. Bland,
G. Cressey, L. E. Howard, C. Jeynes, R. Matthewman,
Z. Martins, Mark A. Sephton, Vlad Stolojan, and S.
Verchovsky, 2013, Biomass preservation in impact
melt ejecta. Nature Geoscience vol. 6, pp. 1018–1022.
http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v6/n12/full/ngeo1996.html
PDF file at
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/260208850_Biomass_preservation_in_impact_melt_ejecta

A related paper is:

How Asteroid Strikes Preserved Signs of Ancient
Life, Adam Mann, Wired Magazine, 2015
https://web.archive.org/web/20150323170849/http://www.wired.com/2014/04/asteroid-impact-amber

The paper is;

Schultz, P. H., R. S. Harris , S. J. Clemett, K. L.
Thomas-Keprta, and M. Zárate, 2015, Preserved
flora and organics in impact melt breccias Geology,
published online on 15 April 2014 as doi:10.1130/G35343.1
http://geology.gsapubs

Yours,

Paul H.

New Hypothesis Proposed for Three Mass Extinctions

New Hypothesis Proposed for Three Mass Extinctions

New Cause Behind Three Mysterious Mass Extinctions
Revealed, The Fossil forum, November 7, 2015
http://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/topic/58887-new-cause-behind-three-mysterious-mass-extinctions-revealed

Long, J. A., R. R. Large, M. S.Y. Lee, M. J. Benton,
L. V. Danyushevsky, L. M. Chiappe, J. A. Halpin,
D. Cantrill, ND B. Lottermoser, 2015, Severe selenium
depletion in the Phanerozoic oceans as a factor in
three global mass extinction events. Gondwana
Research. Available online 17 October 2015
In Press, Corrected Proof — Note to users
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1342937X1500235X

Yours.

Paul H.

Saturday, 7 November 2015

Extinction of Megafauna in the Ice-Age Arctic

Extinction of Megafauna in the Ice-Age Arctic

Ice-age lesson: Large mammals need room
to roam, Physorg, November 2, 2015
https://web.archive.org/web/20151104014108/http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-11/uoaf-ill110215.php
http://news.uaf.edu/ice_age_mammals/

Mann, D. H., P. Groves, R. E. Reanier, B. V.
Gaglioti, M. L. Kunz, and B. Shapiro, 2015,
Life and extinction of megafauna in the
ice-age Arctic. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1516573112
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/10/28/1516573112.abstract?sid=13e9e0b1-af5b-4e68-87e4-59ec3889ea66
PDF:
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/10/28/1516573112.full.pdf?with-ds=yes

Yours,

Paul H.

Monday, 2 November 2015

Online Guidebooks to Canadian Fossils and Geology

Online Guidebooks to Canadian Fossils and Geology

Hi,

Recently, I came across a couple of field trip guidebooks
about fossils and geology of areas within Quebec and
Ontario,Canada. The first guidebook is:

Hofmann, H. J., and and M. D. Chartier, 2006, Canadian
Paleontology Conference Field Trip Guidebook No. 11
Canadian Paleontology Conference, Redpath Museum,
McGill University, Montreal (QC) October 13–16, 2006

It contains Field Trip A - "Stratigraphy of the Montreal area"
by H.J. Hofmann and Field Trip B - "Fossils of the Champlain
Sea." the Redpath Museum, and the Saint-Nicolas site by
M. D. Chartier and M.E. Cournoyer

It is at
http://www.academia.edu/2780812/Canadian_Paleontology_Conference_Field_Trip_Guidebook_No._11
and citation at http://www.gac.ca/publications/view_pub.php?id=188

The second guidebook is:

Frank R. Brunton, Elizabeth Turner and Derek Armstrong,
2009, A Guide to the Paleozoic Geology and Fossils of
Manitoulin Island and northern Bruce Peninsula, Ontario,
Canada. Canadian Paleontology Conference Field Trip
Guidebook No. 14, 76 pp., SBN 978-1-897095-45-4

It is
at:https://www.academia.edu/7132983/A_Guide_to_the_Paleozoic_Geology_and_Fossils_of_Manitoulin_Island_and_northern_Bruce_Peninsula_Ontario_Canada

I found them in Google Advanced Search using
"guidebook geology site:https://www.academia.edu/”

Also, using in Google Search: "Friends of Pleistocene guidebook
site:https://www.academia.edu/" yields some interesting results.

Finally there is “Hunting for Whales in Eastern Ontario,” Fossils
and Geology of Lanark County, Ontario, Friday, 24 April 2015,
http://fossilslanark.blogspot.com/2015/04/hunting-for-whales-in-eastern-ontario_24.html

and Fossils and Geology of Lanark County, Ontario
http://fossilslanark.blogspot.com

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 28 October 2015

DNA of 11,500 BP Alaskan Infant Remains Analyzed

DNA of 11,500 BP Alaskan Infant Remains Analyzed

What ancient babies reveal about ice-ageAmericans' travels DNA analysis of infants buried some 11,500years ago supports the Beringian Standstill hypothesis,suggesting that humans were isolated in Alaska for some10,000 years after crossing the Bering land bridge by EvaBotkin-Kowacki,
Christian Science Monitor, October 27, 2015
http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/1027/What-ancient-babies-reveal-about-ice-age-Americans-travelsand

https://web.archive.org/web/20151028002101/http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/1027/What-ancient-babies-reveal-about-ice-age-Americans-travels



Utah genetics research links ancient babies in Alaska to Native Americans by Kristen Moulton, 
The Salt Lake Tribune

http://www.sltrib.com/home/3095008-155/utah-genetics-research-links-ancient-babiesand

https://web.archive.org/web/20151027014313/http://www.sltrib.com/home/3095008-155/utah-genetics-research-links-ancient-babies


Photo gallery athttps://web.archive.org/web/20151028002516/http://www.sltrib.com/csp/mediapool/sites/sltrib/Pages/gallery.csp?cid=3095008&pid=2872189



Останки аляскинских младенцев рассказали о долгой

жизни азиатов в БерингииОстанки аляскинских

младенцев рассказали о долгой жизни азиатов в

Берингии - Фото: Ben A. Potter / Univ. ofAlaska Fairbanks

http://m.lenta.ru/news/2015/10/27/beringia



The paper is:

Tackney, J. C., B. A. Potter, J. Raff, M.Powers, W. S.

Watkins, D. Warner, J. D. Reuther, J. D. Irish,and D. H.

O’Rourke, 2015, Two contemporaneous mitogenomes

from terminal Pleistocene burials in easternBeringia

PNAS 2015 ; published ahead of print October26, 2015,

doi:10.1073/pnas.1511903112

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/10/21/1511903112.abstract

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/10/21/1511903112/suppl/DCSupplemental

yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 27 October 2015

"Geology of Northern Arizona" Guidebooks Now Online

"Geology of Northern Arizona" Guidebooks Now Online

"Geology of Northern Arizona" Guidebooks Now
Online, Arizona Geological Survey, Oct. 14, 2015
http://arizonageology.blogspot.com/2015/10/geology-of-northern-arizona-guidebooks.html

“Arizona Geological Survey has posted online for free
viewing and downloading "The Geology of Northern
Arizona - With Notes on Archaeology and Paleoclimate"
at http://repository.azgs.az.gov/uri_gin/azgs/dlio/1647 .”

“This is a two volumes set comprising 800 pages of
illustrated field trip guides for sites in Northern
Arizona that was published in 1974 as part of the
Rocky Mountain section meeting of the Geological
Society of America.”

Another set of guidebooks is:

Geologic Diversity of Arizona and its Margins:
Excursions to Choice Areas (For The 100th annual
meeting of The Geological Society of America (1984)
http://repository.azgs.az.gov/uri_gin/azgs/dlio/1646

Another publication is:

Gems and Precious Stones of Arizona
http://repository.azgs.az.gov/uri_gin/azgs/dlio/71

More publications and maps at:

Arizona Geological Survey Document Repository
document archiving, management and discovery
http://repository.azgs.az.gov
http://repository.azgs.az.gov/about

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 15 October 2015

Online Meteorite Lectures

Online Meteorite Lectures

Incoming: Learning to love the meteorite
Geological Society of London lecture
Lecture by Dr Ted Nield given at the Geological Society
on 19 December 2012 as part of the 2012 Shell London
Lecture series.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SuYKYRHMq4U

"New research is suggesting that 470 million years ago, a
stupendous collision in the Asteroid Belt (whose debris is
still falling, to this very day) bombarded the Earth with
meteorites of all sizes. A revolutionary idea is emerging
that the resulting ecological disturbance may have been
responsible not only for massive worldwide submarine
landslides, but for the single greatest increase in biological
diversity since the origin of complex life -- the hitherto
unexplained Great Ordovician Biodiversity Event."

Lecture 2

Geology in Space: Meteorites and Cosmic Dust
Geological Society of London
Published on Aug 7, 2014
By Matt Genge, a planetary scientist and geologist
from Imperial College London
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMTl5fY4QW4

"Geology no longer is the study of the Earth. Rocks
are found throughout the universe on other planets,
asteroids and comets and as debris ranging in size
down to the tiniest pieces of stardust."

Lecture 3

The meaning of meteorites
Royal Astronomical Society Lecture
Published on March 24, 2015
by Dr Ted Nield, Geoscientist Magazine
Royal Astronomical Society public lecture, 10 February 2015
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lgd_bJELtM

"Ted Nield surveys the ways impacts have influenced life
on Earth, and suggests that, as with ideas, meteorites have
'timeliness', because the effect of any single cause, in
human as in Earth history, is controlled largely by the
context in which it occurs."

The below lecture has nothing to do with meteorites.
It is just fun fossil hunting.

Fossils and Mud: A Jurassic Adventure‬
Geological Society of London, London, Lecture June 2015
‪by Neville Hollingworth,University of Birmingham‬
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0pj8MUicSA

"Having spent over 25 years wallowing around in mud,
Neville Hollingworth will introduce you to some of the
finer aspects of the Middle Jurassic of North Wiltshire
and South Gloucestershire. …

‪This lecture will be a pictorial tour of some quite unusual‬
sites, digging techniques, notable characters and chance
discoveries that made the national news."

Yours,

Paul H.

Has Kepler Discovered an Alien Megastructure ?

Has Kepler Discovered an Alien Megastructure ?

Has Kepler Discovered an Alien Megastructure ?
by Ian o,Neill, Discover Magazine, Oct 14, 2015
http://news.discovery.com/space/alien-life-exoplanets/has-kepler-discovered-an-alien-megastructure-151014.htm

The Most Mysterious Star in Our Galaxy.
Astronomers have spotted a strange mess of
objects whirling around a distant star.
Scientists who search for extraterrestrial
civilizations are scrambling to get a
closer look. Ross Anderson, the Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2015/10/the-most-interesting-star-in-our-galaxy/410023/

Did Astronomers Find Evidence of an Alien
Civilization? (Probably Not. But Still Cool.)
By Phil Plait, Slate Magazine, Oct. 14, 2015
http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2015/10/14/weird_star_strange_dips_in_brightness_are_a_bit_baffling.html

KIC 8462852 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KIC_8462852

The paper is:

Boyajian, T. S., D. M. LaCourse, S. A. Rappaport,
and others, 2015, Planet Hunters X. KIC 8462852
– Where’s the flux? Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000.
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1509.03622v1.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Monday, 12 October 2015

Fossils and Mud: A Jurassic Adventure in the United Kingdom

Fossils and Mud: A Jurassic Adventure in the United Kingdom

Fossils and Mud: A Jurassic Adventure
Geological Society of London, London, Lecture June 2015
‪by Neville Hollingworth,University of Birmingham
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0pj8MUicSA


"Having spent over 25 years wallowing around in mud, Neville Hollingworth will introduce you to some of the finer aspects of the Middle Jurassic of North Wiltshire and South Gloucestershire. …

‪This lecture will be a pictorial tour of some quite unusual sites, digging techniques, notable characters and chance discoveries that made the national news."

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 11 October 2015

Re: [Rockhounds] Communicating and Conducting Science

Re: [Rockhounds] Communicating and Conducting Science

I wrote:

“or as stated by Dr. Ralph B. Peck:
“If you can’t reduce a difficult engineering problem to
just one 8 1⁄2 x 11-inch sheet of paper, you will probably
never understand it."

From “Ralph B. Peck: Engineer Educator A Man of Judgement at:
https://web.archive.org/web/20150221014758/http://www.ngi.no/upload/6661/NGI%20Publ%20207%20%20Ralph%20B%20Peck%20-%20Engineer%20-%20Educator%20-%20A%20Man%20of%20Judgement.pdf


J Bryan Krämer replied:

“Number two reminds me of the Elevator talk
principal: if you cannot condense a difficult idea
down to a elevator talk then you don't understand
it. Author was some big name Physicist. Apparently
not Einstein or Fermi. Anyway I'd like to see a
mathematician do that for the Riemann Problem, I
read a whole book on it and still don't get what
it's about.”

Even the best of matheticians have the same problem
with understanding what their fellow matheticians write.

Go see:

The biggest mystery in mathematics: Shinichi
Mochizuki and the impenetrable proof by Davide
Castelvecchi, Nature News, Oct. 7, 2015
http://www.nature.com/news/the-biggest-mystery-in-mathematics-shinichi-mochizuki-and-the-impenetrable-proof-1.18509?WT.mc_id=SFB_NNEWS_1508_RHBox
http://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/1.18509!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/526178a%20corrected.pdf

"A Japanese mathematician claims to have solved
one of the most important problems in his
field. The trouble is, hardly anyone can work
out whether he's right."


Yours,

Paul H.

Communicating and Conducting Science

Communicating and Conducting Science

Below are a couple of useful articles about scientific
writing and research.

Scientists should speak simply to other scientists, too
Posted by mcadams, AGU Blogosphere, May 28, 2015
http://blogs.agu.org/sciencecommunication/2015/05/28/scientists-should-speak-simply-to-other-scientists-too/

or as stated by Dr. Ralph B. Peck:

“If you can’t reduce a difficult engineering problem to
just one 8 1⁄2 x 11-inch sheet of paper, you will probably
never understand it."

From “Ralph B. Peck: Engineer Educator A Man of Judgement at:
https://web.archive.org/web/20150221014758/http://www.ngi.no/upload/6661/NGI%20Publ%20207%20%20Ralph%20B%20Peck%20-%20Engineer%20-%20Educator%20-%20A%20Man%20of%20Judgement.pdf
and 
https://web.archive.org/web/20151010232130/http://www.ngi.no/no/Arkiv/Aktualiteter---ARKIV/73884/

Another article is:stated

How scientists fool themselves – and how they can stop
Humans are remarkably good at self-deception. But
growing concern about reproducibility is driving many
researchers to seek ways to fight their own worst instincts.
by Regina Nuzzo, Nature News, October 7, 2915.
http://www.nature.com/news/how-scientists-fool-themselves-and-how-they-can-stop-1.18517?WT.mc_id=SFB_NNEWS_1508_RHBox
and 
http://www.nature.com/polopoly_fs/1.18517!/menu/main/topColumns/topLeftColumn/pdf/526182a.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 4 October 2015

Great YouTube Lecture Series On Engineering Geology

Great YouTube Lecture Series On Engineering Geology

There are some great Youtube lectures about engineering
geology by Dr. David Rogers, University Missouri at
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8rEEIEMhazZBvsKB_e7xzg .

Although long, the nice thing about these lectures is
that person can view them at their own pace and time.
Also, Dr. Rogers occasionally talks about how to survive
as an consulting engineering geologist and the trials and
tribulations of field work during his lectures.

Another web page contains links to the Powerpoint files of
the lectures at
http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/umrcourses/ge341/ .

For example, are some very nice examples of spheroidal
weathering and jointing in the powerpoint at
http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/umrcourses/ge341/online_lectures/weathering/Weathering-pt4.ppt
.

They go with the lecture at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JOmOgBBIAk .

Yours,

Paul H.

Thursday, 17 September 2015

Impact Origin of Archean Craton

Impact Origin of Archean Craton

Impact origin of archean cratons: Learning from Venus
Geological Society of America
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-08/gsoa-ioo082715.php
http://www.sciencenewsline.com/articles/2015082813370021.html

the Paper is:

Hansen, V. 2015, Impact origin of Archean cratons. Lithosphere.
First published online August 24, 2015, doi: 10.1130/L371.1
http://lithosphere.gsapubs.org/content/early/2015/08/24/L371.1.abstract

Yours,

Paul H.

Wednesday, 16 September 2015

Meteorite Museum, Atacama desert, Northern Chile

Meteorite Museum, Atacama desert, Northern Chile

This Couple Built a Meteorite Museum in the
Middle of the Desert—And It's Awesome
by Jo Piazza, Yahoo News, Sept. 10, 2015
https://www.yahoo.com/travel/from-hobby-to-business-we-built-a-meteorite-128751142869.html

Yours,

Paul H.

Tuesday, 15 September 2015

Double Impact Craters Found In Sweden (~458 Ma)

Double Impact Craters Found In Sweden (~458 Ma)

Two Meteors Hit Ancient Earth at Same Time
D News, by Elizabeth Palmero, LiveScience
http://news.discovery.com/space/asteroids-meteors-meteorites/two-meteors-hit-ancient-earth-at-same-time-150915.htm
http://www.livescience.com/52154-ancient-meteors-struck-simultaneously.html

Double crater identified in Sweden
Eureka alert, University of Gothenburg, Sept. 11, 2015
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-09/uog-gud091115.php
http://www.gu.se/english/about_the_university/news-calendar/News_detail//globally-unique-double-crater-identified-in-sweden.cid1317063

Yours,

Paul H.

Fossils From The Very Deep Subsurface (Underwater, Underground, Or Both)

Fossils From The Very Deep Subsurface (Underwater, Underground, Or Both)

It is an old topic, but still interesting.

Oil drillers have struck dinosaur off Norway, the
Research Council of Norway announced this week.
by James Owen, National Geographic News, April 26, 2006
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/04/0426_060426_dinos.html

The World's Deepest Dinosaur Finding –
2256 Metres Below The Seabed, Science Daily,
The Research Council of Norway, April 25, 2006
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060425091449.htm
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-04/trco-twd042406.php
http://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/721.php

By the way, a Cretaceous turtle and Ordovician trilobite were
found in separate drill cores in Florida.

In 1955, the Amerada Petroleum Corporation drilled wildcat well
12 miles northwest of Okeechobee, Florida. A well core from
9,210 feet contained the remains of a Cretaceous aquatic turtle.
The core, which was composed of gray argillaceous dolomite,
was 4 3/ 8 inches in diameter, recovered the anterior or front
end of it. Its skull and hind portions were outside the area of
the core (Olson 1965:4).

Further north, A similar chance recovery from a drill core was
made in Madison County, Florida. In 1944, the Hunt Oil Company
recovered drill core from depth of 4,628 feet. It contained a
Middle Ordovician trilobite (Colpocoryphe exsul) (Olson 1965:4).

The paper that describes and illustrates the Florida trilobite is:

Whittington, H. B., 1953, A new Ordovician trilobite
from Florida. Breviora 1953, vol. 17, pp. 1-6

The above paper, with a picture, is at:
https://archive.org/details/cbarchive_39107_anewordoviciantrilobitefromflo1952

The paper, but without the picture, is also at:
http://biostor.org/reference/biostor/4489

In addition, a Paleocene mammal skull was recovered
from a depth of about 2,460 feet below the surface from
an oil well in Caddo Parish in Junior Oil Company,
Beard No. 1 in Sec. 9, T.18N., R.16W. (Simpson 1932).
See https://web.archive.org/web/20080515014027/http://members.cox.net/pyrophyllite/Paleocene.html

Reference cited:

Olson, S. J., 1965, Vertebrate fossil localities in Florida.
Special Publication no. 12, Florida Geological Survey.
http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000475/00001/1j

Simpson, G. G., 1932, A new Paleocene mammal from
a deep well in Louisiana. proceedings of the United States
National Museum, vol. 82, art. 2, pp. 1-4.
https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/16067
https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/16067/USNMP-82_2943_1932.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Yours,

Paul H.

Sunday, 13 September 2015

Re: [Rockhounds] AD- Ruck's Pit Calcite/Clams - 2005 Guidebook

Re: [Rockhounds] AD- Ruck's Pit Calcite/Clams - 2005 Guidebook

Larry wrote:

“I have recently added 9 specimens from the
now closed Ruck's Pit, in Florida….”

Given the discussion about Mercenariapermagna and
calcite crystals, list members might be interested to know
that there is a PDF version of filed trip guidebook about
Ruck’s Pit that is available online. It is:

Maddox, G. L., T. M. Scott, and G. H. Means, 2005,
Rucks’ Pit: Okeechobee County, Florida, USA.
Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook
Number 45 December 3, 2005
http://segs.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/SEGS-Guidebook-45.pdf
http://segs.org/publications/

It provides a wealth of information about the occurrence,
age, and other aspects of the geological setting of both
the Mercenariapermagna and the calcite crystals.

Yours,

Paul H.

New Species of Ancient Human Discovered In South Africa

New Species of Ancient Human Discovered In South Africa

The Atlantic has a great article about how these fossils
were discovered and excavated. It is:

6 Tiny Cavers, 15 Odd Skeletons, and 1 Amazing New
Species of Ancient Human. (The inside story behind a
spectacular new hominin find.) by Ed Yong, Sept. 10, 2015
http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/homo-naledi-rising-star-cave-hominin/404362/

The paper is:

Berger, L. E., J. Hawks, D. J. de Ruiter, and many others, 2015,
Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi
Chamber, South Africa. eLife. vol. 4, e09560. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.09560
Abstract at http://elifesciences.org/content/4/e09561
PDF file at http://elifesciences.org/content/elife/4/e09560.full.pdf

Yours,

Paul H.

Friday, 11 September 2015

Re: [meteorite-list] The Holocene Start Impact Event

Re: [meteorite-list] The Holocene Start Impact Event

In Re: The Holocene Start Impact Event and
on September 10, 2015, E.P. Grondine wrote

"Hi Paul- thanks for your note.
Now, let me draw you a picture:
http://archaeologica.boardbot.com/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=3656 "

The in above web page among various stuff, you stated:

"In the first of my notes, I speculated on the timing of
the beginning of the Holocene Start Impact Event. In
this note, I moved on to consider some possible
physical evidence, and call attention to an earlier
comment by David Ollen on the mechanics of large
hypervelocity impacts onto ice sheet"

This refers to an article "Did A Massive Meteor Touch
Down Here" by By Graham Mason in the Lloydminster
Meridian Booster, which is at:
http://www.meridianbooster.com/2009/03/18/did-a-massive-meteor-touch-down-here

In the past, you have asked for my comments on this
feature, but I have been preoccupied with a geoarchaeological
study of the Louisiana Continental Shelf and Slope for the
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, onshore geological
mapping, and other projects. Having just got back from the
field earlier than expected, I have had time to see what
has been pubished about the geology of the Kitscoty,
Alberta area in which this feature is located.

Fortunately, there exist decent, detailed geological maps of that
part of Alberta, e.g. Crickmay et al. (1942) and (Glombick 2014a,
2014b). Although there is an ovalish outcrop pattern, the
comparison of these geological maps to local topographic maps
found that this and other outcrop patterans are controlled by the
local topography. The best that I can find, the local structure
consists of gently dipping Cretaceous clastic strata that lack
any discernable uplifts or any other structure that can be
currently interpreted to be related to a major extraterrestrial
impact.

If a person looks hard enough anywhere in the world he
or she can find any number of enigmatic circular, oval, circular
and curvilinear features of uncertain origin illustrated in
Gableman (1984) that are not related impact structures or
craters. Of course, Gableman (1984) provides only one of
many explantions offered for these still mysterious features.

Buy the way, an interesting web page related to Alberta
impact structures is:

Cypress Hills region - Bedrock Geology and Physiography
Astroblemes around the Cypress Hills (Eagle Butte structure)
http://www.scirpus.ca/escape/scapebib/sect251.htm

A recently published open-access and interesting paper
related to the Younger Dryas is:

Ancient Cold Period Could Provide Clues About Future
Climate Change, University of Texas News, Sept. 2, 2015
http://news.utexas.edu/2015/09/02/ancient-cold-period-could-provide-clues-on-climate-change

Partin,, J. W., T. M. Quinn, C.-C. Shen, Y. Okumura, M. B.
Cardenas, F. P. Siringan, J. L. Banner, K. Lin, H.-M. Hu, and
F. W. Taylor, 2015, Gradual onset and recovery of the
Younger Dryas abrupt climate event in the tropics. Nature
Communications 6, Article number: 8061 doi:10.1038/ncomms9061
Received 10 October 2014 Accepted 13 July 2015
Published 02 September 2015
Abstract at : http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150902/ncomms9061/full/ncomms9061.html
PDF at: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150902/ncomms9061/pdf/ncomms9061.pdf

References Cited

Crickmay, C. H., G. S. Hume, and C. O. Hage (1942) Kitscoty,
Alberta. Geological Survey of Canada Map 673A. scale
1:253,440. Geological Survey of Canada/Department of Mines.
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
http://geoscan.ess.nrcan.gc.ca/starweb/geoscan/servlet.starweb?path=geoscan/geoscanfastlink_e.web&search1=R=106804
http://geoscan.nrcan.gc.ca/starweb/geoscan/servlet.starweb?path=geoscan/downloade.web&search1=R=106804
http://geoscan.nrcan.gc.ca/starweb/geoscan/servlet.starweb?path=geoscan/geoscan_e.web

Gableman, J. W. (1984) Circular Geomorphic Features
Permissive to Interpretation as Conduits of Mantle Degasing.
Global Tectonics and Metallogeny. vol. 2, nos. 3 and 4,
pp. 151-168.

Glombick, P. M. (2014a) Bedrock Geology of the Vermillion Area,
Alberta (NTS 73E). AER/AGS Map 570. scale 1:250,000. Alberta
Energy Regulator, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/abstracts/MAP_570.html
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/map/PDF/Map_570.pdf
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/gis/

Glombick, P. M. (2014b) Bedrock Geology of the Wainwright Area,
Alberta (NTS 73E). AER/AGS Map 569. scale 1:250,000. Alberta
Energy Regulator, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/abstracts/MAP_569.html
http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/gis/

Yours,

Paul H.



Thursday, 10 September 2015

Re: [meteorite-list] Graham Hancock on the YD impacts E.P. Grondine

Re: [meteorite-list] Graham Hancock on the YD impacts E.P. Grondine

E.P. Grondine wrote,

"Hi Paul, all
A preview of fall TV shows:
http://sacredgeometryinternational.com/graham-hancock-and-joe-rogan-discuss-randall-carlsons-paradigm-changing-research
I never heard of Randall Carson - has anyone here heard of him? "

In slumming on the Graham Hancock Messageboard, I have
become aware of him. Randall and Graham seem to be kindred
souls in being contrarians and independent investigators into
and advocates for matters that they judge to be unfairly
overlooked by convential science and labeled either "alt-history"
and "alternative history." Some people, whom I know have far
less diplomatic and kinders lables for their interests.

Randall regards himself as self taught expert in whole range
of subjects, including geomythology, geology, catatsrophist,
planetary geologist, scared geometry, and so forth and an able
teacher of all the above. People can judge for themselves
how well Randall's self-evaluation of his expertise either
matches or mismatches reality by listening or reading his
own views at:

1. Sacred Geometry International (Featured Posts)
http://sacredgeometryinternational.com ,
http://sacredgeometryinternational.com/category/media/articles ,
and https://www.facebook.com/sacredgeometryintl

2. Randall Carlson and Joe Rogan Discuss Lost Civilizations,
Climate Change, Sacred Geometry, Freemasonry and
Rewriting History with Graham Hancock – JRE #606 by SGI
http://sacredgeometryinternational.com/jre_606_randall_carlson_joe_rogan

3. Randall Carlson: The Making of a Catastrophist – Part 1
by Randall Carlson
http://sacredgeometryinternational.com/the-making-of-a-catastrophist-randall-carlson

By the way, an advanced discussing of their new book Magicians
of the Gods can be found in "EXCLUSIVE: Comet 'three times
bigger than dinosaur killer could soon destroy Earth' A
TWENTY-mile wide piece of a huge comet poses a "clear and
present" danger to 'all life on Earth,' a controversial new book
by a bestselling author claims," by Jon Austin, Express, Sept. 2015.
http://www.express.co.uk/news/science/603596/Comet-3-times-bigger-than-dinosaur-killer-could-soon-destroy-Earth
http://csglobe.com/exclusive-comet-three-times-bigger-than-dinosaur-killer-could-soon-destroy-earth/

It appears that this book has a quite different view of the
Younger Dryas Impact hypothesis than has appeared in the
"Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United
States" and other journals. This book appears will be not at
all helpful, as assumed by some people, at making their ideas
known among the public in a constructive manner. It might
end up as a classic case of be careful what you wish for as you
might get it. It will be very interesting to see how it all eventual
turns out.

Ed also stated:

"To my knowledge, the FIRST suggestion that the YD
impacts may have triggered a release of Glacial Lake
Missoula was made by me to the meteorite list several years
back in regards to Assiniboine memories of what occurred."

The latest megaflood from Glacial Lake Missoula has been
very intensively research. At this point, there is absolutely no
need to invoke an exterestrial impact for the latest Missoula
Flood event as a more plausible explanation has been well-
documented in numerous publications. For example, go see:

DeGrey, L., and P. K. Link, 2005, Lake Missoula Floods.
(The Pleistocene Ice Age and the Cordilleran Ice
Sheet Ancient Lake Missoula and the Missoula Ice Age
Floods Lasting Effects of the Missoula Ice Age Floods,
Digital Geology Idaho, Idaho State University.
http://geology.isu.edu/Digital_Geology_Idaho/Module13/mod13.htm

O'Connor, J. E., R. B. Waitt, G. Benito, D. Cordero, and
S. Burns, 1995a, Beyond the Channeled Scabland A field trip
to Missoula flood features in the Columbia, Yakima, and
Walla Walla valleys of Washington and Oregon-Part 1.
Oregon Geology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 51-60.
http://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/OG/OGv57n03.pdf

O'Connor, J. E., R. B. Waitt, G. Benito, D. Cordero, and
S. Burns, 1995b, Beyond the Channeled Scabland: A Field
Trip to Missoula Flood Features in the Columbia, Yakima,
and Walla Walla Valleys of Washington and Oregon; Part 2;
Field Trip, Day One. Oregon Geology. v.ol 57, no.4, pp. 75–86.
http://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/OG/OGv57n04.pdf

Norman, D.K., A. J. Busacca, and R. Teissere, 2004,
Geology of the Yakima Valley Wine County— A
Geologic Field Trip Guide from Stevenson to Zillah,
Washington. Field Trip Guide 1 June 2004. Washington
State Department of Natural Resources .
http://wa-dnr.s3.amazonaws.com/publications/ger_ftg1_yakima_valley_wine_country.pdf

Baker, V. R., and D. Nummedal, eds., 1978, The Channeled
Scabland, NASA, Washington, DC.
http://fax.libs.uga.edu/j84xnasx1x18xcx36/1f/channeled_scabland.pdf

There are a number PDf files of fieldtrip guidebook in
Discover the Ice Age Floods – http://hugefloods.com/Ellensburg.html
http://hugefloods.com/Beezley-Hills-Field-Trip-1.pdf
http://hugefloods.com/Karl-Lillquist-Guide-2.pdf
http://hugefloods.com/Karl-Lillquist-Guide.pdf
http://hugefloods.com/Grand-Coulee-Ice-Age.pdf

Ice Age Floods Study of Alternatives Appendix A
—Reference List – National Park Service
http://www.nps.gov/iceagefloods/app-a.htm

There are many other papers and PDF files, both online and
behind paywalls.

Also, there exists an abundance of published radiocarbon dates,
optically stimulated luminescence dates, paleosols (inlcuding
interbedded calcretes that took at least thousands to tens of
thousands of years to form), stratigraphic data, dated ash beds,
paleomagentic data, terrestrial trace fossils, and so forth that
documents there having been at least over 40 to over a 100
separated Missoula floods having occurred over the last 1.5
millian years. Missoula-like megafloods definitely occurred
at least more than 780,000 years ago. As a result, a person needs
to explain how the latest Missoula Floods differs the other more
than 40 to 100 other Missoula Floods, which have occurred in the
past, that an extraterrestrial impact is needed to explain it.

A few of many interesting papers are

Gaylord, D. R., A. J. Busacca, and M. R. Sweeney, 2003, The
Palouse loess and the Channeled Scabland: A paired ice-age
geologic system. p. 123-134. In D. Easterbrook (ed.) XVI
INQUA Congress Field Trip Guidebook.
http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/taylor/gs407rivers/Gaylord_etal_2003_Palouse_Loess_Field_Guide.pdf

McDonald, E. V. , M. R. Sweeney, and A. J. Busacca, 2012,
Glacial outburst floods and loess sedimentation documented
during Oxygen Isotope Stage 4 on the Columbia Plateau,
Washington State. Quaternary Science Reviews. vol. 45 pp. 18-30
http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~mpl/Ge121a_Scablands/McDonald%20et%20al%202012%20old%20flood%20evidence.pdf

Benito, G., and J. E. O’Connor, 2003, Number and size of
last-glacial Missoula floods in the Columbia River valley
between the Pasco Basin, Washington, and Portland, Oregon.
Geological Society of America Bulletin. vol. 115, no. 5; pp. 624–638
http://www.wou.edu/las/physci/taylor/eisi/benito03.PDF

Yours,



Paul H.